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Ask the Beasts: Spirituality and the Evolving Earth
 
01:25:47
Ask the Beasts: Spirituality and the Evolving Earth EVELYN UNDERHILL LECTURE IN CHRISTIAN SPIRITUALITY Join the conversation in the STM Online: Crossroads "Online Book Club: Laudato Si" http://bit.ly/2RDiSHR July 13, 2013 Presenter: Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J. “Ask the beasts and they will teach you; the birds of the air, and they will tell you; ask the plants of the earth and they will instruct you; and the fish of the sea will declare to you ... “ (Job 12:7-8) Guided by this often unheeded advice, this lecture asks the creatures formed by life’s evolution for their wisdom about the creative love of the living God. Their beauty and agonies disclose in new ways the energizing presence of the Spirit, the solidarity of Jesus in the flesh of suffering, and the immense power of the Origin and Goal of all. As a fellow species, human beings are summoned to a spirituality of relationship and ethic of care in this time of ecological distress. Sponsored by the School of Theology and Ministry Elizabeth A. Johnson, C.S.J., is the Distinguished Professor of Theology, Fordham University, and author of the forthcoming book Ask the Beasts: Darwin and the God of Love(Bloomsbury, 2013). Click here for handout to accompany viewing the lecture: http://bit.ly/2RLCqu1
How Does The Civil War Qualify as the First Modern War?
 
01:36:58
For 5,800 years of recorded history, wars were fought with pre-modern forms of transportation ad communication, where the world was powered by windmills, watermills, literal horse power and human muscle. However, this all changed with the invention of the steam engine and its implementation in the 19th century. In fifty short years, macadamized roads, canals, steam trains, steam boats, steam presses and telegraph communication revolutionized the transfer of energy and power. By the 1850s, every aspect of western civilization looked and functioned differently than it had for thousands of years. It was in this milieu the Civil War was fought. What did the first modern war look like and how did it differ from previous wars? How did wartime observations by foreign emissaries alter the course of future wars?
Views: 8124 GettysburgNPS
The History of Mr. Polly Audiobook by H. G. Wells | Audiobook with subtitles
 
09:08:44
A funny and touching account of the imaginative Mr. Polly who, bored and trapped in his conventional life, makes a U-turn –- and changes everything. H.G. Wells’ early life as the son of a semi-insolvent shopkeeper and as a draper’s apprentice fueled his novels of the lower middle class: The Wheels of Chance (1896), Kipps (1905), and The History of Mr. Polly (1910). These works evoke the desperation of apprentices, clerks, and small traders in their monotonous toil behind shop counters. And, like Mr. Polly, his protagonists make a break from their mundane lives with more or less success. H. G. Wells (1866-1946) was a prolific writer in history, general and science fiction, and politics. He was a lifelong socialist. (Summary by Adrian Praetzellis) The History of Mr. Polly H. G. WELLS Our Custom URL : https://www.youtube.com/c/AudiobookAudiobooks Subscribe To Our Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/AudiobookAudiobooks?sub_confirmation=1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Audio Book Audiobooks All Rights Reserved. This is a Librivox recording. All Librivox recordings are in the public domain. For more information or to volunteer visit librivox.org.
Views: 1089 Audio book Audiobooks
Confederate States of America | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:14:48
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Confederate States of America Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.Each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, which was considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch practically overnight. After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy later accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were they ever largely controlled by Confederate forces; Confederate shadow governments attempted to control the two states but were later exiled from them. The government of the United States (the Union) rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished. The war lacked a formal end; nearly all Confederate forces had been forced into surrender or deliberately disbanded by the end of 1865, by which point the dwindling manpower and resources of the Confederacy were facing overwhelming odds. By 1865, Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared".
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Maritime history of the United Kingdom | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:20:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Maritime history of the United Kingdom 00:00:47 1 Chronology 00:00:56 1.1 Eighteenth century 00:01:51 1.2 Nineteenth century 00:03:26 1.3 Twentieth century 00:05:24 1.4 Twenty-first century 00:05:44 2 Royal Navy 00:05:53 2.1 Eighteenth-century navy 00:06:46 2.2 Nineteenth-century navy 00:07:57 2.3 Twentieth-century navy 00:12:01 2.4 The Navy Board 00:12:26 2.5 Ministry of Defence 00:12:44 2.6 Notable wars 00:12:53 2.6.1 American Wars 00:13:28 2.6.2 French Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars 00:14:06 2.6.3 Maritime events of World War I 00:17:27 2.6.4 Maritime events of World War II 00:22:39 2.6.5 Post War Operations 00:24:30 3 Notable individuals 00:24:39 3.1 Charles Hardy 00:25:11 3.2 Augustus Keppel 00:26:35 3.3 Edward Hawke 00:26:59 3.4 Richard Howe 00:27:37 3.5 Horatio Nelson 00:29:30 3.6 Hyde Parker 00:30:23 3.7 Edward Pellew 00:30:55 3.8 James Saumarez 00:31:41 3.9 William Dampier 00:32:18 3.10 James Cook 00:33:49 3.11 George Vancouver 00:34:23 3.12 Admiral Anson 00:34:49 3.13 Sir John Franklin 00:35:51 3.14 James Clarke Ross 00:36:12 3.15 Robert Scott 00:36:32 3.16 Ernest Shackleton 00:37:10 4 Shipbuilding 00:38:36 5 Famous ships 00:38:45 5.1 iCutty Sark/i 00:39:40 5.2 iEndeavour/i 00:40:45 5.3 iGreat Britain/i 00:41:20 5.4 iGreat Eastern/i 00:42:33 5.5 iTitanic/i 00:43:52 5.6 iQueen Mary/i 00:44:29 5.7 iBritannia/i 00:45:11 5.8 iVictory/i 00:46:07 5.9 iWarrior/i 00:46:50 5.10 iBelfast/i 00:47:43 6 Navigation 00:47:52 6.1 Instruments and guides 00:48:45 6.2 Lighthouses 00:49:27 6.3 Navigation marks 00:50:02 7 Safety and rescue 00:50:12 7.1 Plimsoll line 00:50:49 7.2 Lifeboats 00:51:51 7.3 Maritime and Coastguard Agency 00:52:20 8 Ports and harbours 00:54:26 9 Trade 00:54:34 9.1 Goods 00:57:44 9.2 Passenger liners 00:58:27 9.3 Emigration/deportation 00:59:03 10 Ferries and cruise boats 01:00:07 11 Customs men and smugglers 01:01:22 12 Fishing 01:03:55 13 Energy 01:04:03 13.1 Gas and oil 01:04:59 13.2 Oil spills 01:06:21 13.3 Offshore wind farms 01:06:56 14 Coast 01:08:11 15 Leisure activities 01:08:20 15.1 Resorts 01:09:00 15.2 Rowing, yachting and power boats 01:11:35 15.3 Marinas 01:11:57 16 Marine science 01:12:07 16.1 Hydrographics 01:12:54 16.2 Oceanography 01:14:17 17 Maritime studies 01:14:26 17.1 Colleges 01:15:01 17.2 Admiralty law 01:15:45 18 Law of the sea 01:16:11 18.1 Ship design 01:16:51 19 Maritime museums 01:17:23 19.1 Maritime archaeology 01:18:02 20 Maritime subjects in the Arts 01:18:12 20.1 Art 01:18:44 20.2 Literature 01:20:01 20.3 Music 01:20:16 21 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Maritime history of the United Kingdom involves events including shipping, ports, navigation, and seamen, as well as marine sciences, exploration, trade, and maritime themes in the arts from the creation of the kingdom of Great Britain as a united, sovereign state, on 1 May 1707 in accordance with the Treaty of Union, signed on 22 July 1706. Until the advent of air transport and the creation of the Channel Tunnel, marine transport was the only way of reaching the British Isles. For this reason, maritime trade and naval power have always had great importance. Prior to the Acts of Union, 1707, the maritime history of the British Isles was largely dominated by that of England. (See Maritime history of England for more details.)
Views: 44 wikipedia tts
Forty acres and a mule | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:16
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Forty acres and a mule 00:01:46 1 Background 00:04:37 2 War 00:05:16 2.1 Grand Contraband Camp 00:07:47 2.2 Sea Islands 00:10:56 2.2.1 Port Royal Experiment 00:13:34 2.2.2 Landownership in the Sea Islands 00:16:54 2.2.3 "Negroes of Savannah" 00:19:26 2.2.4 Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 00:21:36 2.2.5 Significance 00:22:30 2.3 Wage labor system 00:23:54 2.4 Davis Bend 00:27:05 3 Freedmen's Bureau 00:31:30 3.1 Circular #13 00:34:30 3.2 Black Codes 00:35:09 4 Colonization and homesteading 00:35:42 4.1 Foreign colonization plans 00:38:22 4.2 Domestic colonization plans 00:39:05 4.3 Southern Homesteading Act 00:41:58 5 Outcomes 00:42:36 5.1 Hopes and expectations 00:43:59 5.2 Wage labor 00:46:04 5.3 Tidewater Virginia 00:48:34 5.4 Sea Islands 00:54:14 5.5 Davis Bend 00:55:19 5.6 Politics 00:56:08 6 Legacy 00:59:40 6.1 Symbolism 01:00:22 6.2 Reparations 01:00:51 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Forty Acres and a Mule refers to a promise made in the United States for agrarian reform to former enslaved black farmers by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman on January 16, 1865. It followed a series of conversations between Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Radical Republican abolitionists Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens following disruptions to the institution of slavery provoked by the American Civil War. Many freedmen believed and were told by various political figures that they had a right to own the land they had long worked as slaves, and were eager to control their own property. Freed people widely expected to legally claim 40 acres (16 ha) of land (a quarter-quarter section) and a mule after the end of the war, long after proclamations such as Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 and the Freedmen's Bureau Act were explicitly reversed. Some land redistribution occurred under military jurisdiction during the war and for a brief period thereafter. However, federal and state policy during the Reconstruction era emphasized wage labor, not land ownership, for blacks. Almost all land allocated during the war was restored to its pre-war white owners. Several black communities did maintain control of their land, and some families obtained new land by homesteading. Black land ownership increased markedly in Mississippi during the 19th century, particularly. The state had much undeveloped bottomland behind riverfront areas that had been cultivated before the war. Most blacks acquired land through private transactions, with ownership peaking at 15,000,000 acres (6,100,000 ha) in 1910, before an extended financial recession caused problems that resulted in the loss of their property for many.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Confederate States of America | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:14:48
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Confederate States of America Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.Each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, which was considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch practically overnight. After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy later accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were they ever largely controlled by Confederate forces; Confederate shadow governments attempted to control the two states but were later exiled from them. The government of the United States (the Union) rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished. The war lacked a formal end; nearly all Confederate forces had been forced into surrender or deliberately disbanded by the end of 1865, by which point the dwindling manpower and resources of the Confederacy were facing overwhelming odds. By 1865, Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared".
Views: 58 wikipedia tts
John C. Breckinridge | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:15:24
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: John C. Breckinridge 00:03:50 1 Early life 00:06:39 2 Early legal career 00:09:04 3 Mexican–American War 00:11:47 4 Political career 00:11:56 4.1 Early political career 00:13:19 4.2 Kentucky House of Representatives 00:17:00 4.3 U.S. Representative 00:17:05 4.3.1 First term (1851–1853) 00:21:03 4.3.2 Second term (1853–1855) 00:24:34 4.3.3 Retirement from the House 00:26:24 4.4 Vice Presidency 00:32:55 4.5 Presidential campaign of 1860 00:39:24 4.6 U.S. Senator 00:44:15 5 Civil War 00:44:24 5.1 Service in the Western Theater 00:52:41 5.2 Service in the Eastern Theater 00:58:10 5.3 Confederate Secretary of War 01:02:31 6 Escape and exile 01:07:53 7 Return to the U.S. and death 01:12:13 8 Legacy 01:12:22 8.1 Historical reputation 01:13:18 8.2 Monuments and memorials 01:15:05 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was an American lawyer, politician, and soldier. He represented Kentucky in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861. He was a member of the Democratic party. He served in the U.S. Senate during the outbreak of the American Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He was appointed Confederate Secretary of War in 1865. Breckinridge was born near Lexington, Kentucky to a prominent local family. After non-combat service during the Mexican–American War, he was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1849, where he took a states' rights position against interference with slavery. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1850, he allied with Stephen A. Douglas in support of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. After reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term. He was nominated for vice-president at the 1856 Democratic National Convention to balance a ticket headed by James Buchanan. The Democrats won the election, but Breckinridge had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, could not express his opinions in debates. In 1859, he was elected to succeed Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittenden's term in 1861. As vice president, Breckinridge joined Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party. After Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention, the party's northern and southern factions held rival conventions in Baltimore that nominated Douglas and Breckinridge, respectively, for president. A third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell. These three men split the Southern vote, while more anti-slavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won all but three electoral votes in the North, allowing him to win the election. Breckinridge carried most of the Southern states. Taking his seat in the Senate, Breckinridge urged compromise to preserve the Union. Unionists were in control of the state legislature, and gained more support when Confederate forces moved into Kentucky. Breckinridge fled behind Confederate lines. He was commissioned a brigadier general and then expelled from the Senate. Following the Battle of Shiloh in 1862, he was promoted to major general, and in October he was assigned to the Army of Mississippi under Braxton Bragg. After Bragg charged that Breckinridge's drunkenness had contributed to defeats at Stone River and Missionary Ridge, and after Breckinridge joined many other high-ranking officers in criticizing Bragg, he was transferred to the Trans-Allegheny Department, where he won his most significant victory in the 1864 Battle of New Market. After participating in Jubal Early's campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley, Breckinridge was charged with defending supplies in Tennessee and Virginia. In February 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of War. Concludi ...
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Reconstruction Era | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:16:24
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Reconstruction Era Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. The term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War; the second, to the attempted transformation of the 11 ex-Confederate states from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate nationalism and ended slavery, making the newly free slaves citizens with civil rights apparently guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included terror and violence; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans.Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as quickly as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill. Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator and former slave owner, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this.Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866. Those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers, businessmen and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his veto, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate. The new national reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage (the right to vote) for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the south, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan. During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the south, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to effectively combat the Ku Klux Klan ...
Views: 23 wikipedia tts
Reconstruction Era | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:16:24
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Reconstruction Era Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. The term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War; the second, to the attempted transformation of the 11 ex-Confederate states from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate nationalism and ended slavery, making the newly free slaves citizens with civil rights apparently guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought; the white supremacist vision, which included terror and violence; and the emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans.Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as quickly as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill. Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator and former slave owner, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this.Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866. Those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers, businessmen and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his veto, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate. The new national reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage (the right to vote) for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the south, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan. During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the south, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to effectively combat the Ku Klux Klan ...
Views: 14 wikipedia tts