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Secrets of the Moab Desert - Potholes & Tardigrades ~ 4K
 
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Watch in 4K Ultra HD as National Park Ranger Karen Garthwait talks about the amazing life-forms found in a pothole in Arches National Park; from tadpole shrimp to the seemingly indestructible tardigrades, as well as biological soil crust, and the importance of conservation in our public lands. The area surrounding the town of Moab in Southern Utah includes Arches and Canyonlands National Parks, Dead Horse Point, Fisher Towers, Salt Flats Recreation Area and many historic archeological and paleontological sites. This is a preview from the new theater film now playing in 4K at the Moab Information Center / Visitor Center in Southern Utah. Produced for Canyonlands Natural History Association and the Moab Travel Council. For visitor information, visit www.cnha.org. DM-697 Moab Conservation Trailer YT 4K 2ps 40mbps
Views: 5099 finleyholiday
The Role of Biological Soil Crusts
 
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Part of a Climate Science online course offered through a USU Extension and eXtension partnership https://extension.learn.usu.edu/browse/climate-essentials/courses/climate
It's Alive! Biological Soil Crusts in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts
 
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Don't bust the crust! Before you go traipsing across the desert, find out about this living groundcover--what it's made of, why it's important, and how to protect it--in this short film from the National Park Service Sonoran Desert Network.
Views: 2032 sonorandesertnetwork
Cryptobiotic soil
 
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Cryptobiotic soil
Views: 486 Virtual Field Trips
cryptobiotic soils
 
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Doug Owen, National Park Service Geologist at Craters of the Moon National Monument shows how rapidly some mosses can go from dormant to photosynthesizing. This was part of the ReaL Earth Inquiry Teacher Professional Development Program at Craters of the Moon in Summer 2012.
Views: 740 Don Haas
Soil Crust
 
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Soil Crust
Views: 80 Moab 21 News
Crushing the Crust
 
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When small thing like crushing nearby soil crust can change your day, from gloomy to happy. Try to find your small pleasures from things around you :)
Views: 60 ysf pn
Soil Crust
 
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Living Soil Crusts act as a natural protection against weed incursion on wildlife habitat.
Views: 903 WesternWatersheds
Restoration of biological soil crusts in the Great Basin
 
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Jayne Belnap, Research Ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Moab, UT, discusses principals, techniques, and answers questions about restoring biological soil crusts in the Great Basin.
Views: 556 GBFireScience
Life Rock $4.25/lb. - Caribe Sea
 
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Gorgeous safe man made rock and nondestructive to our delicate reefs. Same biological properties as rock from the ocean without the nasty unwanted critters that come with it!
Views: 2396 TheReefCorner
biological soil crust resuscitation
 
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Real-time video of a mossy biological soil crust greening-up within seconds of being wetted.
Views: 350 northenlab
Soil Crusts and Climate change
 
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www.terraderm.org
Views: 257 bhpraj
NAU Students Explore Bio Crust In Utah
 
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NAU students are exploring bio crust in the canyon lands of southern Utah. Bio crust, often not thought about, plays a key role in keeping down dust and maintaining a healthy ecosystem. Matt Bowker, soil ecologist from NAU's School of Forestry, calls bio crust the living skin of the earth.This serves to hold nutrients in its place. U.S. geological survey ecologist , Jayne Belna, adds that a projected warming/drying trend will further threaten its desert survival because a lot of these organisms are at their thermal edge. Anita Antoninka, forest ecologist for NAU, monitors soils samples transplanted from different elevations. Her goal is to understand if they can adapt to climate change. Scientists continue to study combinations of organisms in hopes to create the best recipe for boosting bio crust in desert environments.
Views: 119 NAZ Today
Microbiologic crusts on alluvial fans
 
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A brief discussion on cryptogamic or microbiologic crusts forming on a young alluvial fan.
Biocrust - Cryptogamic soil crust on the Colorado National Monument
 
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Crytogramic soil (also known as soil crust or biocrust) is usually found in arid environments and can be made up of cyanobacteria, mosses and lichen. It's very fragile so I always avoid walking on it or making any kind of disturbance. I recorded this video on top of the plateau on the Liberty Cap trail in the Colorado National Monument - just a few kilometres from the Utah border and the city of Grand Junction, Colorado. Here's my personal web page about Biology: http;//www.rogerwendell.com/biology.html Here's my page about hiking: http://www.rogerwendell.com/hiking.html 11-11-2009
Views: 813 zeekzilch
Biocrusts as the critical zone in dryland ecosystems: what does the future hold?
 
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Presented by Dr. Jayne Belnap at the 2016 Ecological Integration Symposium. Jayne Belnap is a research ecologist with the U.S. Geological Service. Her work focuses on dryland and rangeland ecosystems, with a focus on how these lands can be managed sustainably while still used for grazing, recreation, and energy/mineral development and exploration. She was recognized by the Ecological Society of America as one of the most outstanding ecologists in the U.S. (2008), received the award for outstanding women in science award from the U.S. Department of the Interior (2010), and was elected a fellow of the Ecological Society of America (2015). Abstract: Plant cover is sparse in dryland regions, and the dominant living cover is often biological soil crusts (biocrusts). These thin, soil surface communities consist of photosynthetic cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses, as well as fungi, heterotrophic bacteria and soil microfauna and together, control many of the ecosystem processes in these settings. The concept of critical zones, defined as the “heterogeneous, near surface environment in which complex interactions involving rock, soil, water, air, and living organisms regulate the natural habitat and determine the availability of life-sustaining resources” is now commonly used. Most ecosystems are dominated by tall vascular plants with roots ramifying throughout deep soils and thus the critical zone has been defined in meters. Conversely, drylands have sparse vascular vegetation, shallow soils, and large amounts of rock cover and thus here, the critical zone may be better characterized as the top centimeter of soil covered by biocrusts. Soil surface disturbance and droughts have been dramatically increasing in these regions, profoundly altering the composition of biocrusts and thus the roles they play in dryland ecosystems.
Photobiont | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:13:35
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen 00:03:14 1 Pronunciation and etymology 00:03:55 2 Growth forms 00:07:39 2.1 Color 00:10:06 2.2 Internal structure and growth forms 00:16:29 3 Physiology 00:16:38 3.1 Symbiotic relation 00:22:07 3.2 Ecology 00:23:22 3.2.1 Miniature ecosystem and holobiont theory 00:25:08 3.2.2 Lichenicolous fungi 00:25:34 3.3 Reaction to water 00:26:02 3.4 Metabolites, metabolite structures and bioactivity 00:26:40 3.5 Growth rate 00:27:08 3.6 Life span 00:27:57 3.7 Response to environmental stress 00:29:39 4 Reproduction and dispersal 00:29:49 4.1 Vegetative reproduction 00:31:19 4.2 Sexual reproduction 00:35:20 5 Taxonomy and classification 00:37:57 5.1 Fungi 00:39:23 5.2 Photobionts 00:43:47 5.3 Controversy over classification method and species names 00:47:12 5.4 Diversity 00:48:31 5.5 Identification methods 00:49:08 5.6 Evolution and paleontology 00:52:40 6 Ecology and interactions with environment 00:52:51 6.1 Substrates and habitats 00:56:30 6.2 Lichens and soils 00:57:49 6.3 Ecological interactions 01:01:24 6.4 Effects of air pollution 01:03:39 7 Human use 01:03:48 7.1 Food 01:05:24 7.2 Lichenometry 01:06:48 7.3 Biodegradation 01:07:15 7.4 As dyes 01:08:36 7.5 Traditional medicine and research 01:09:45 7.6 Aesthetic appeal 01:10:31 7.7 In literature 01:11:12 8 History 01:13:07 9 Gallery 01:13:16 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.866788828955488 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A lichen (, LEYE-ken but in UK often , LICH-en) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism.Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. Th ...
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Joshua Tree VLOG Part 1
 
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Joshua Tree National Park Vlog - Part 1/Day 1. Follow the Pali Media team on this Vlogging journey as they encounter; mass desert, hiking, rock climbing, cactus(does anyone get hurt?) camping, camp fires and the great OUTDOORS! Learn and experience new ADVENTURES! Some quick outdoor education on Cryptobiotic Crusts, Rock Climbing, Hiking and Plant Life. -- Stay tuned for Part 2/Day 2 Coming Soon! Check out more of our Vlog(aka - Video Blog) videos coming soon and see what other AWESOME antics Taz and the rest of the Pali TV team get into! LIKE! SHARE! SUBSCRIBE! -- FOLLOW US HERE -- Website - https://www.paliinstitute.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Pali.Institute/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Pali_Institute Google Plus: https://plus.google.com/+PaliInstituteOutdoorEducation
Views: 312 Pali TV
Mycobiont | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:19:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen 00:03:28 1 Pronunciation and etymology 00:04:12 2 Growth forms 00:08:12 2.1 Color 00:10:52 2.2 Internal structure and growth forms 00:17:48 3 Physiology 00:17:57 3.1 Symbiotic relation 00:23:55 3.2 Ecology 00:25:17 3.2.1 Miniature ecosystem and holobiont theory 00:27:10 3.2.2 Lichenicolous fungi 00:27:38 3.3 Reaction to water 00:28:08 3.4 Metabolites, metabolite structures and bioactivity 00:28:48 3.5 Growth rate 00:29:19 3.6 Life span 00:30:11 3.7 Response to environmental stress 00:32:03 4 Reproduction and dispersal 00:32:13 4.1 Vegetative reproduction 00:33:49 4.2 Sexual reproduction 00:38:05 5 Taxonomy and classification 00:40:58 5.1 Fungi 00:42:29 5.2 Photobionts 00:47:15 5.3 Controversy over classification method and species names 00:50:57 5.4 Diversity 00:52:20 5.5 Identification methods 00:53:00 5.6 Evolution and paleontology 00:56:51 6 Ecology and interactions with environment 00:57:02 6.1 Substrates and habitats 01:00:56 6.2 Lichens and soils 01:02:19 6.3 Ecological interactions 01:06:11 6.4 Effects of air pollution 01:08:36 7 Human use 01:08:46 7.1 Food 01:10:31 7.2 Lichenometry 01:12:02 7.3 Biodegradation 01:12:31 7.4 As dyes 01:13:56 7.5 Traditional medicine and research 01:15:11 7.6 Aesthetic appeal 01:16:01 7.7 In literature 01:16:44 8 History 01:18:46 9 Gallery 01:18:55 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7898949936944959 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A lichen (, LEYE-ken but in UK often , LICH-en) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism.Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. T ...
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
Cryptogamic soil at the Colorado National Monument
 
00:43
Crytogramic soil (also known as soil crust or biocrust) is usually found in arid environments and can be made up of cyanobacteria, mosses and lichen. It's very fragile so I always avoid walking on it or making any kind of disturbance. I recorded this video on top of the plateau on the Liberty Cap trail in the Colorado National Monument - just a few kilometres from the Utah border and the city of Grand Junction, Colorado. Here's my personal web page about Biology: http;//www.rogerwendell.com/biology.html Here's my page about hiking: http://www.rogerwendell.com/hiking.html 11-11-2009
Views: 290 zeekzilch
Stone Mountain Drone Video
 
03:46
Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park in Stone Mountain, Georgia. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet (514 m) MSL and 825 feet (251 m) above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain is well-known not only for its geology, but also for the enormous rock relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world. The carving depicts three Confederate figures during the Civil War: Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee, and Jefferson Davis. Stone Mountain is a pluton, a type of igneous intrusion. Primarily composed of quartz monzonite, the dome of Stone Mountain was formed during the formation of the Blue Ridge Mountains around 300–350 million years ago (during the Carboniferous period), part of the Appalachian Mountains. It formed as a result of the upwelling of magma from within the Earth's crust. This magma solidified to form granite within the crust five to ten miles below the surface. Stone Mountain pluton continues underground 9 miles (14 km) at its longest point into Gwinnett County. The top of the mountain is a landscape of bare rock and rock pools, and it provides views of the surrounding area including the skyline of downtown Atlanta, often Kennesaw Mountain, and on very clear days even the Appalachian Mountains. The clear freshwater pools of the summit form by rainwater gathering in eroded depressions, and are home to unusual clam shrimp and fairy shrimp. The tiny shrimp appear only during the rainy season. Through the process of cryptobiosis, the tiny shrimp eggs (or cysts) can remain dormant for years in the dried out depressions, awaiting favorable conditions. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Mountain Music: Faded (Tiesto's Northern Light Remix) - Alan Walker
Views: 3391 Magic City MavriX
Soil biology
 
00:42
Soil biology
Missouri MRDT - 2018 System Acceptance Review
 
05:01
The Missouri S&T Mars Rover Design Team presents our 2018 URC Contender, Atlas. Social Media: @missouriMRDT marsrover.mst.edu Music: Blue Man Group, Above
What Is The State Of Matter Of The Outer Core Of The Earth?
 
00:46
"What Is The State Of Matter Of The Outer Core Of The Earth? Watch more videos for more knowledge What Is The State Of Matter Of The Outer Core Of ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/GlWk42qVC4A What Is The State Of Matter Of The Mantle Of The ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/0iAEyMUIZIk Is The Inner Core A Liquid Or A Solid? https://www.youtube.com/watch/CXl3Ms_DGCA The Mystery of the Earth's Core Explained https://www.youtube.com/watch/XXTEWQdu3aE Different Layers of the Earth | It's Interior, Structure ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/hmgR4PiGp1E Inside the Earth | IkenEdu https://www.youtube.com/watch/N9ncfAsmiSg Is The Mantle A Liquid Or A Solid? https://www.youtube.com/watch/XThi6iwqlMY Structure of the Earth - Inside our earth https://www.youtube.com/watch/-oQc_49IoCo What Is The Layer Of The Earth That Is Liquid? https://www.youtube.com/watch/XOLL9Mbx8fE Layers of the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch/Q9j1xGaxYzY Earth's core deprived of oxygen https://www.youtube.com/watch/BF_w5UsIH6s Science - Layers of earth (with Animation) and ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/-8joRDZNmMA Structure of the Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch/4AxZ-6MOznY%26vl%3Den Earth - Layers , Inside Earth - Lesson for Kids ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/Sxd-wGMfNxw Science - Layers of earth - Telugu https://www.youtube.com/watch/h0uSNiSI1mE Why Does The Earth Have Layers? https://www.youtube.com/watch/WwiiOjyfvAU "
Views: 191 Tedfri Teff
Cradle of Life
 
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Learn about how plant life can survive in an ever changing dune field.
Zorica Svircev Presentation Bremen 2011
 
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IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL LOESS CRUSTS FOR LOESS FORMATION IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTS
Views: 513 LaperNS
Sagebrush Ecosystems in a Changing Climate and Adaptive Management
 
01:00:04
This webinar was conducted on July 17, 2017 as part of the USGS National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center Climate Change Science and Management Webinar Series, held in partnership with FWS National Conservation Training Center. Webinar Summary: Sagebrush steppe rangelands comprise a large fraction of North America, but they are in decline due to increases in wildfire and invasive plants, factors that relate strongly to climate and weather variability. When intact, plant communities in sagebrush steppe appear well adapted to cold wet winters and hot dry summers along with low predictability of annual precipitation. However, disturbances such as large fire or conversion of sites to exotic annual grassland sensitize basic ecosystem functions to climate and weather variability, often leading to substantial losses in soil and ecosystem stability. Management responses to wildfire such as seeding, planting, or treatment of exotic invasive plants are pivotal opportunities for hindering or reversing the degradation. However, restoring desirable perennials is often challenging in these environments due to the climate and weather systems. Published and preliminary findings point to several seeding and planting strategies and technologies that are likely to increase success, particularly those that directly address seed and plant adaptation. The presentation gives a brief overview of how these factors are being addressed in research and adaptive management. Additional Credits: Matthew Germino, USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center; John Ossanna, FWS National Conservation Training Center; Emily Fort, USGS National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center ---------- Find this video and thousands more at https://usgs.gov/gallery. Stay up-to-date on USGS topics and news on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and more at https://usgs.gov/socialmedia. DYK? The USGS.gov site is completely mobile! Ditch the desktop and browse the latest earth science on your mobile device. Go to https://usgs.gov.
Views: 812 USGS
Overlooking The Blacksoil Plain
 
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this is a shot taken from the norwin silos, darling downs australia. We that shot starts off.....that was actually our old farm. Check out the video i made about it: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kQaoUdvxxw My grandfather owned it and then passed it down to my dad....its is a beautiful place
Views: 250 johndeere1993
Desert | Wikipedia audio article
 
58:30
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Desert 00:03:43 1 Etymology 00:04:49 2 Physical geography 00:05:39 2.1 Classification 00:15:27 2.2 Weathering processes 00:18:17 2.3 Dust storms and sandstorms 00:21:41 2.4 Major deserts 00:22:44 2.5 Features 00:28:14 2.6 Water 00:32:01 3 Biogeography 00:32:11 3.1 Flora 00:35:59 3.2 Fauna 00:43:40 4 Human relations 00:44:03 4.1 History 00:47:10 4.2 Natural resource extraction 00:49:07 4.3 Farming 00:52:04 4.4 Solar energy capture 00:53:55 4.5 Warfare 00:55:37 4.6 In culture 00:57:23 5 Deserts on other planets Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind. This picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones. These areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and often spines to deter herbivory. Some annual plants germinate, bloom and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture. Animals need to keep cool and find enough food and water to survive. Many are nocturnal and stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day. They tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall. They then reproduce rapidly while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life. The cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, and the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how previously barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, ...
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Phycobiont | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen 00:03:59 1 Pronunciation and etymology 00:04:48 2 Growth forms 00:09:26 2.1 Color 00:12:28 2.2 Internal structure and growth forms 00:20:23 3 Physiology 00:20:32 3.1 Symbiotic relation 00:27:16 3.2 Ecology 00:28:48 3.2.1 Miniature ecosystem and holobiont theory 00:30:57 3.2.2 Lichenicolous fungi 00:31:27 3.3 Reaction to water 00:32:00 3.4 Metabolites, metabolite structures and bioactivity 00:32:45 3.5 Growth rate 00:33:19 3.6 Life span 00:34:17 3.7 Response to environmental stress 00:36:22 4 Reproduction and dispersal 00:36:33 4.1 Vegetative reproduction 00:38:21 4.2 Sexual reproduction 00:43:16 5 Taxonomy and classification 00:46:27 5.1 Fungi 00:48:10 5.2 Photobionts 00:53:35 5.3 Controversy over classification method and species names 00:57:45 5.4 Diversity 00:59:21 5.5 Identification methods 01:00:06 5.6 Evolution and paleontology 01:04:27 6 Ecology and interactions with environment 01:04:39 6.1 Substrates and habitats 01:09:08 6.2 Lichens and soils 01:10:44 6.3 Ecological interactions 01:15:09 6.4 Effects of air pollution 01:17:54 7 Human use 01:18:03 7.1 Food 01:20:01 7.2 Lichenometry 01:21:43 7.3 Biodegradation 01:22:15 7.4 As dyes 01:23:53 7.5 Traditional medicine and research 01:25:17 7.6 Aesthetic appeal 01:26:14 7.7 In literature 01:27:03 8 History 01:29:22 9 Gallery 01:29:31 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7219904997142711 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A lichen (, LEYE-ken but in UK often , LICH-en) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism.Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. T ...
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Circumstellar habitable zone | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Circumstellar habitable zone Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure. The bounds of the CHZ are based on Earth's position in the Solar System and the amount of radiant energy it receives from the Sun. Due to the importance of liquid water to Earth's biosphere, the nature of the CHZ and the objects within it may be instrumental in determining the scope and distribution of Earth-like extraterrestrial life and intelligence. The habitable zone is also called the Goldilocks zone, a metaphor of the children's fairy tale of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears", in which a little girl chooses from sets of three items, ignoring the ones that are too extreme (large or small, hot or cold, etc.), and settling on the one in the middle, which is "just right". Since the concept was first presented in 1953, many stars have been confirmed to possess a CHZ planet, including some systems that consist of multiple CHZ planets. Most such planets, being super-Earths or gas giants, are more massive than Earth, because such planets are easier to detect. On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way. 11 billion of these may be orbiting Sun-like stars. Proxima Centauri b, located about 4.2 light-years (1.3 parsecs) from Earth in the constellation of Centaurus, is the nearest known exoplanet, and is orbiting in the habitable zone of its star. The CHZ is also of particular interest to the emerging field of habitability of natural satellites, because planetary-mass moons in the CHZ might outnumber planets.In subsequent decades, the CHZ concept began to be challenged as a primary criterion for life, so the concept is still evolving. Since the discovery of evidence for extraterrestrial liquid water, substantial quantities of it are now thought to occur outside the circumstellar habitable zone. The concept of deep biospheres, like Earth's, that exist independently of stellar energy, are now generally accepted in astrobiology given the large amount of liquid water known to exist within in lithospheres and asthenospheres of the Solar System. Sustained by other energy sources, such as tidal heating or radioactive decay or pressurized by non-atmospheric means, liquid water may be found even on rogue planets, or their moons. Liquid water can also exist at a wider range of temperatures and pressures as a solution, for example with sodium chlorides in seawater on Earth, chlorides and sulphates on equatorial Mars, or ammoniates, due to its different colligative properties. In addition, other circumstellar zones, where non-water solvents favorable to hypothetical life based on alternative biochemistries could exist in liquid form at the surface, have been proposed.
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Lichen, Fungi, Moss, Mushroom, Flora, Plants Part 10 of 13 - Nature Ecosystem of Western N America
 
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www.thenatureexplorers.com DESCRIPTION: The Nature Explorers creates naturalist cinéma-vérité style documentary videos, audio recordings, and photographs. This documentation serves as a record of the flora and fauna species inhabiting the ecosystems during the specific time frame and can be used in the future as a reference to how the ecosystems are constantly evolving as well as the affects on them by anthropogenic activities. These ecosystem videos, audio recordings, and photographs are presented in a format so they may be used for educational instruction and testing purposes as well as scientific study of the ecosystems, therefore narrations have been left out and classical music used in the background when no natural sound is available, ultimately leaving the videos for self interpretation, individual discovery, and for professors to explain or show as examples in a classroom setting. Expeditions usually take place in an area of five square miles over 7-21 days during which time the flora, fauna, geology, weather, and landscapes of the ecosystem are all documented. The Nature Explorers do not seek out, bait, or wait for species, filming only what is encountered while exploring the ecosystem on foot. EXPEDITION LIST: Dark Canyon Expedition, Utah/USA - May 2011 South Flaming Gorge Expedition, Utah/USA - May 2011 Ishawooa Expedition, Wyoming/USA - June 2011 Kooskooskia Expedition, Idaho/USA - June 2011 Hells Canyon Expedition, Idaho/USA - July 2011 Umatilla Expedition, Oregon/USA - July 2011 Ochoco Black Canyon Expedition, Oregon/USA - August 2011 Mt. Jefferson Expedition, Oregon/USA - September 2011 Yolly Bolly Expedition, California/USA - October 2011 Redwoods Temperate Rainforest Expedition, California/USA - January 2012 Siuslaw Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Oregon/USA - February 2012 Santiam Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Oregon/USA - March 2012 Olympic Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Washington/USA - April 2012 Wenatchee Expedition, Washington/USA - May 2012 Channeled Scablands Expedition, Washington/USA - May 2012 Kaniksu Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Washington/USA - June 2012 Kootenai Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Montana/USA - June 2012 Bob Marshall Temperate Rainforest Expedition, Montana/USA - July 2012 Lemhi Expedition, Idaho/USA - August 2012 Beaver Dam Slough Expedition, Idaho/USA - August 2012 Uinta Expedition, Utah/USA - September 2012 White River Expedition, Colorado/USA - September 2012 Collegiate Peaks Expedition, Colorado/USA - October 2012 El Rio De Las Animas Perdidas En Purgatorio Expedition, Colorado/USA - November 2012 Amistad Expedition, Texas/USA - March 2014 Chihuahuan Desert Expedition, Texas/USA - May 2014 - May 2016
The Oldest Question: Is There Life Beyond Earth?
 
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Christopher D. Impey, Distinguished Professor, Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona. Presented March 8, 2011. Our reconstruction of the chronology of events that led to the origin of the Earth and subsequent chemical evolution on our planet informs us that nothing unusual was required for the origin and development of terrestrial life, and that therefore life may be pervasive throughout the cosmos. Whether extraterrestrial life exists is so ancient and beguiling a question that humankind is actively seeking the answer in its explorations of the planetary systems in our solar system. It may one day transpire that we discover that genesis has occurred, independently, not once but twice in our solar system. At that point, we could safely infer that life is a fundamental feature of our universe ... along with dark matter, supernovae, and black holes. Cosmic Origins is the story of the universe but it's also our story. Hear about origin of space and time, mass and energy, the atoms in our bodies, the compact objects where matter can end up, and the planets and moons where life may flourish. Modern cosmology includes insights and triumphs, but mysteries remain. Join the six speakers who will explore cosmology's historical and cultural backdrop to explain the discoveries that speak of our cosmic origins. http://cos.arizona.edu/cosmic
Lichens on Mars
 
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An overview of how lichens can colonize and evolve on Mars
Views: 72 Casey Mar
Desert | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Desert Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which consequently break in pieces. Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor is further eroded by the wind. This picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones. These areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and often spines to deter herbivory. Some annual plants germinate, bloom and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture. Animals need to keep cool and find enough food and water to survive. Many are nocturnal and stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day. They tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again when the rare rains fall. They then reproduce rapidly while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life. The cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation and the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how previously barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, especially across the Sahara Desert, and traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold, ivory and other goods. Large numbers of slaves were also taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction also takes place in deserts and the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy.
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John Day Fossil Beds National Monument | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: John Day Fossil Beds National Monument 00:02:16 1 Geography 00:05:35 2 History 00:12:32 3 Geology and paleontology 00:18:52 4 Climate 00:20:03 5 Biology 00:20:12 5.1 Flora 00:22:55 5.2 Fauna 00:26:02 6 Activities 00:29:11 7 See also 00:29:26 8 Notes and references Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= John Day Fossil Beds National Monument is a U.S. National Monument in Wheeler and Grant counties in east-central Oregon. Located within the John Day River basin and managed by the National Park Service, the park is known for its well-preserved layers of fossil plants and mammals that lived in the region between the late Eocene, about 45 million years ago, and the late Miocene, about 5 million years ago. The monument consists of three geographically separate units: Sheep Rock, Painted Hills, and Clarno. The units cover a total of 13,944 acres (5,643 ha) of semi-desert shrublands, riparian zones, and colorful badlands. About 210,000 people frequented the park in 2016 to engage in outdoor recreation or to visit the Thomas Condon Paleontology Center or the James Cant Ranch Historic District. Before the arrival of Euro-Americans in the 19th century, the John Day basin was frequented by Sahaptin people who hunted, fished, and gathered roots and berries in the region. After road-building made the valley more accessible, settlers established farms, ranches, and a few small towns along the river and its tributaries. Paleontologists have been unearthing and studying the fossils in the region since 1864, when Thomas Condon, a missionary and amateur geologist, recognized their importance and made them known globally. Parts of the basin became a National Monument in 1975. Averaging about 2,200 feet (670 m) in elevation, the monument has a dry climate with temperatures that vary from summer highs of about 90 °F (32 °C) to winter lows below freezing. The monument has more than 80 soil types that support a wide variety of flora, ranging from willow trees near the river to grasses on alluvial fans to cactus among rocks at higher elevations. Fauna include more than 50 species of resident and migratory birds. Large mammals like elk and smaller animals such as raccoons, coyotes, and voles frequent these units, which are also populated by a wide variety of reptiles, fish, butterflies, and other creatures adapted to particular niches of a mountainous semi-desert terrain.
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Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge
 
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center America's Wildest Places - Volume 3 Touring America's National Wildlife Refuges Get ready for another set of adventures on the National Wildlife Refuge System! Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Desert Wilderness Arizona
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Lichen | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen 00:02:38 1 Pronunciation and etymology 00:03:13 2 Growth forms 00:06:19 2.1 Color 00:08:22 2.2 Internal structure and growth forms 00:13:37 3 Physiology 00:13:46 3.1 Symbiotic relation 00:18:14 3.2 Ecology 00:19:17 3.2.1 Miniature ecosystem and holobiont theory 00:20:44 3.2.2 Lichenicolous fungi 00:21:07 3.3 Reaction to water 00:21:32 3.4 Metabolites, metabolite structures and bioactivity 00:22:04 3.5 Growth rate 00:22:30 3.6 Life span 00:23:11 3.7 Response to environmental stress 00:24:37 4 Reproduction and dispersal 00:24:46 4.1 Vegetative reproduction 00:26:01 4.2 Sexual reproduction 00:29:18 5 Taxonomy and classification 00:31:27 5.1 Fungi 00:32:38 5.2 Photobionts 00:36:16 5.3 Controversy over classification method and species names 00:39:05 5.4 Diversity 00:40:12 5.5 Identification methods 00:40:45 5.6 Evolution and paleontology 00:43:41 6 Ecology and interactions with environment 00:43:51 6.1 Substrates and habitats 00:46:50 6.2 Lichens and soils 00:47:56 6.3 Ecological interactions 00:50:53 6.4 Effects of air pollution 00:52:45 7 Human use 00:52:54 7.1 Food 00:54:14 7.2 Lichenometry 00:55:25 7.3 Biodegradation 00:55:49 7.4 As dyes 00:56:56 7.5 Traditional medicine and research 00:57:55 7.6 Aesthetic appeal 00:58:34 7.7 In literature 00:59:09 8 History 01:00:44 9 Gallery 01:00:53 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9197823658739298 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A lichen (, LEYE-ken but in UK often , LICH-en) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate. Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains. It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism.Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. T ...
Views: 4 wikipedia tts