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Circadian Rhythm and Your Brain's Clock
 
04:10
Why do we sleep at night instead of during the day? In this episode of SciShow Hank talks about circadian rhythms, how they work, and how they regulate different processes in our bodies. ---------- Our President of Space for this episode: http://www.youtube.com/user/Kurzgesagt ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/artist/52/SciShow Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: https://subbable.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Thanks Tank Tumblr: http://thankstank.tumblr.com Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18419318 http://www.livescience.com/13123-circadian-rhythms-obesity-diabetes-nih.html http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/sleep-drive-and-your-body-clock http://www.aasmnet.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf http://www.helpguide.org/harvard/sleep_cycles_body_clock.htm http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1991/9108/910805.PDF http://news.uci.edu/press-releases/circadian-rhythms-control-bodys-response-to-intestinal-infections-uci-led-study-finds/ http://blogs.nature.com/news/2012/03/gaining-control-of-our-circadian-rhythms.html http://news.yale.edu/2013/06/17/rhythm-everything http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10000872396390444180004578018294057070544
Views: 634138 SciShow
cryptochrome
 
09:24
Views: 2267 slideshow
2-Minute Neuroscience: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
 
01:59
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) are thought to be involved with maintaining circadian rhythms, or biological patterns that follow a 24-hour cycle. To accomplish this, the cells of the SCN contain biological clocks. In this video, I discuss the molecular mechanism driving the biological clocks in the cells of the mammalian SCN, and how a cycle of gene expression allows the activity of these cells to follow a 24-hour pattern. TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The suprachiasmatic nuclei, or SCN, are two small, paired nuclei found in the hypothalamus; they are involved in maintaining circadian rhythms, or biological patterns that follow a 24-hour cycle. To accomplish this, the cells of the SCN contain biological clocks. The following is a simplified description of the molecular mechanism of the biological clocks in the mammalian SCN. Cells in the SCN produce two proteins called Clock and BMAL1. Clock and BMAL1 bind together and promote the expression of genes called period, or per, and cryptochrome, or cry. The protein products of these genes, Per and Cry, then bind together and inhibit the actions of Clock and BMAL1, which in turn suppresses the production of Per and Cry. Gradually, however, the Per and Cry proteins break down. When Per and Cry degrade fully, Clock and BMAL1 are free to act again; they go back to promoting the expression of per and cry, starting the cycle anew. The process consistently takes around 24 hours to complete before it repeats. It is thought that this cycle of gene expression is what acts as the molecular clock in SCN cells, although the process is actually more complex as there are multiple period and cryptochrome genes as well as other proteins involved in the complete mechanism. The SCN can use information it receives from the retina about light in the environment to make adjustments to the circadian clock. Such information travels from the retina to the SCN along a path called the retinohypothalamic tract. References: Colwell, C. (2011). Linking neural activity and molecular oscillations in the SCN Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12 (10), 553-569 DOI: 10.1038/nrn3086 Dibner, C., Schibler, U., Albrecht, U. (2010). The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks Annual review of physiology, 72 (1), 517-549.
CRYPTOCHROME  -- for  CSIR-NET | GATE | BARC | Plant Biology | Sensory Photobiology
 
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Topic: Cryptochrome- blue light receiving pigment. Taken from CSIR-NET/GATE/BARC Syllabus portion. Topic from Plant Biology/Sensory photobiology. #CRYPTOCHROME #SENSORYPHOTOBIOLOGY #CSIRNET/GATE/BARC #PLANTBIOLOGY Phytochrome-for CSIR-NET/GATE/BARC https://youtu.be/AkRxzA6AbJI Introduction to Evolution https://youtu.be/5Mo1uuICho0 For Knowing the Content of this channel https://youtu.be/SA_UVC4z-zQ Introduction of Evolution for CSIR-NET/GATE https://youtu.be/5Mo1uuICho0 Flower Development genes for CSIR-NET/GATE https://youtu.be/fM8AIxZh7fM thank you. LIKE SHARE and Subscribe for more such videos
Views: 5299 TEACHING PATHSHALA
Exploring different optogenetic systems: Light-induced dimerisation
 
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This video is part of our brand new e-learning course on optogenetics, https://www.embl.de/training/e-learning/optogenetics/index.html. Light-induced dimerisation is the most commonly-used method in non-neuronal optogenetics. When exposed to light of a specific wavelength, a photosensitive protein domain undergoes a conformational change which then causes it to bind to an interaction partner to form dimers or oligomers. This video introduces three prominent dimerisation systems: the cryptochrome, the phytochrome and LOV domain-based iLID systems. Executive producer, stop motion animation & voice over: Richard Grandison Scientific concept & graphic design: Daniel Krueger Video producer & motion graphics: Claudiu Grozea Scientific advisor: Stefano de Renzis
Cryptochrome Meaning
 
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Video shows what cryptochrome means. Any of several light-sensitive flavoproteins, in the protoreceptors of plants, that regulate germination, elongation and photoperiodism. Cryptochrome Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say cryptochrome. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 890 ADictionary
Phytochrome
 
07:43
This lecture talks about phytochromes and the role of phytochromes in plant photoperiordism and photosynthesis. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 60758 Shomu's Biology
This Quantum ‘Sixth Sense’ Could Allow Birds to Navigate Earth’s Magnetic Field
 
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How do migrating birds know where to go? New research suggests “spooky action at a distance” might be involved. We’ve Ignored Climate Change For More Than a Century - https://youtu.be/LKhGg0jDZTc Read More: Migratory birds eye-localized magnetoreception for navigation https://phys.org/news/2018-02-migratory-birds-eye-localized-magnetoreception.html “Migratory birds use a magnetic compass in their eye for navigation. The involved sensory mechanisms have long remained elusive, but now, researchers have revealed exactly where in the eye avian navigation is situated.” Billions of Birds Migrate: Where Do They Go? https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2018/03/bird-migration-interactive-maps/ “ Migratory birds have made their thousand-mile flights for millennia, but we are just now learning to map their mesmerizing journeys.” Why Do Birds Migrate? https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070302082310.htm “One textbook explanation suggests either eating fruit or living in non-forested environments were the precursors needed to evolve migratory behavior. Not so, report a pair of ecologists from The University of Arizona in Tucson. The pressure to migrate comes from seasonal food scarcity.” ____________________ Elements is more than just a science show. It’s your science-loving best friend, tasked with keeping you updated and interested on all the compelling, innovative and groundbreaking science happening all around us. Join our passionate hosts as they help break down and present fascinating science, from quarks to quantum theory and beyond. Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information. Visit the Seeker website https://www.seeker.com/videos Elements on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/SeekerElements/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker http://www.seeker.com/ Special thanks to Amy Shira Teitel for writing this episode of Seeker! Check Amy out on Twitter: https://twitter.com/astVintageSpace This episode of Seeker was hosted by Trace Dominguez
Views: 91488 Seeker
Photoactivation mechanism of cryptochrome 2.
 
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Nambin presents photoactivation mechanism of cryptochrome 2. The basic working principle was simple. CRY2 undergoes conformational change catalyzed by blue light, and then N-terminal photolyase homology region (PHR) of CRY2 reversibly associating with the CIBN. In this context, one question is hit upon. How can CRY2 be changed and bind to CIB1 by blue light? There is one hypothesis, that is, tryptophan-triad dependent photoreduction.
Views: 1691 [email protected]
Joseph Takahashi (UT Southwestern/HHMI) Part 1A: Circadian Clocks: Clock Genes, Cells and Circuits
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/circadian-clocks/ Lecture Overview: Circadian rhythms are an adaptation to the 24 hr day that we experience. Takahashi begins his talk with an historic overview of how the genes controlling circadian clocks were first identified in Drosophila and the cloning tour de force that was required to identify clock genes in mice. He also describes the experiments that resulted in the realization that all cells in the body have a circadian clock, not just cells in the brain. In part 1B, Takahashi explains that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain generates a circadian rhythm of fluctuating body temperature that, in turn, signals to peripheral tissues. Heat shock factor 1 is one of the signaling molecules responsible for communicating the temperature information and resetting peripheral clocks. In Part 2, Takahashi describes how crossing many mice of different genetic backgrounds allowed his lab to identify several genes that impact the output of the clock gene system through different mechanisms. Takahashi begins the last part of his presentation with the crystal structures of BMAL and Clock, the two central activators of clock gene transcription. He goes on to describe how his lab showed that BMAL/Clock controls the DNA binding activity of transcriptional regulators of not only cycling genes, but also of basic cell functions such as RNA polymerase 2 occupancy and histone modification. Speaker Bio: Joseph Takahashi received his BA in biology from Swarthmore College, his PhD in neuroscience from the University of Oregon, and he was a post-doctoral fellow with Martin Zatz at the National Institutes of Mental Health. He then spent 26 years at Northwestern University where he was a faculty member in the Department of Neurobiology and Physiology and in 1997 he became an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 2008, Takahashi joined the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center as the Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience. Using forward genetic screens in mice, Takahashi identified the first mammalian circadian gene "Clock" in 1997. Since then, his lab has gone on to identify and clone numerous circadian genes in both the brain and tissues throughout the body. Takahashi has received numerous awards and honors for his ground-breaking research including election to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 17035 iBiology
Joseph Takahashi (UT Southwestern/HHMI) Part 2: Circadian Clocks: Genetics of Mammalian Clocks
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/circadian-clocks/#part-3 Lecture Overview: Circadian rhythms are an adaptation to the 24 hr day that we experience. Takahashi begins his talk with an historic overview of how the genes controlling circadian clocks were first identified in Drosophila and the cloning tour de force that was required to identify clock genes in mice. He also describes the experiments that resulted in the realization that all cells in the body have a circadian clock, not just cells in the brain. In part 1B, Takahashi explains that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain generates a circadian rhythm of fluctuating body temperature that, in turn, signals to peripheral tissues. Heat shock factor 1 is one of the signaling molecules responsible for communicating the temperature information and resetting peripheral clocks. In Part 2, Takahashi describes how crossing many mice of different genetic backgrounds allowed his lab to identify several genes that impact the output of the clock gene system through different mechanisms. Takahashi begins the last part of his presentation with the crystal structures of BMAL and Clock, the two central activators of clock gene transcription. He goes on to describe how his lab showed that BMAL/Clock controls the DNA binding activity of transcriptional regulators of not only cycling genes, but also of basic cell functions such as RNA polymerase 2 occupancy and histone modification. Speaker Bio: Joseph Takahashi received his BA in biology from Swarthmore College, his PhD in neuroscience from the University of Oregon, and he was a post-doctoral fellow with Martin Zatz at the National Institutes of Mental Health. He then spent 26 years at Northwestern University where he was a faculty member in the Department of Neurobiology and Physiology and in 1997 he became an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 2008, Takahashi joined the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center as the Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience. Using forward genetic screens in mice, Takahashi identified the first mammalian circadian gene "Clock" in 1997. Since then, his lab has gone on to identify and clone numerous circadian genes in both the brain and tissues throughout the body. Takahashi has received numerous awards and honors for his ground-breaking research including election to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 7545 iBiology
Eating Affects Your Sleep (and vice versa) - Satchin Panda #560
 
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Satchin Panda, Ph.D., is a leading expert in the field of circadian rhythm research. As a professor at the Salk Institute in San Diego, California, his research focuses on circadian rhythm in health and disease. Research in his lab has shown the profound impact of ambient light and daily eating-fasting on the prevention and prognosis of a wide range of diseases including diabetes, depression, metabolic syndrome, heart diseases, and cancer. He also discovered time-restricted eating in which individuals who eat everything within an 8- to 12-hour period can boost circadian rhythm and prevent or reverse many chronic diseases. Dr. Panda published a new book titled: The Circadian Code: Lose Weight, Supercharge Your Energy, and Transform Your Health from Morning to Midnight. In this episode we talk about the impact of Dr. Panda’s research and discoveries on my Game Changers Law #19: Waking Up Early Does Not Make You a Good Person, his new book and why circadian rhythm is so closely linked to productivity and performance. If you like this video, subscribe to Bulletproof on YouTube today, where you'll find full-length episodes of Bulletproof Radio to watch and listen to, interviews with thought leaders in mindfulness, health, nutrition, science, and biohacking. Also, one simple hack - Bulletproof Coffee - try making it at home - here's the recipe! https://blog.bulletproof.com/bulletproof-coffee-recipe/ Bulletproof Radio is one of the top ranked Podcasts on iTunes! You can subscribe by clicking here:https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/b... Connect with us on social media for quick updates and the newest biohacks: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/bulletproof Twitter - @bpnutritionPinterest - http://www.pinterest.com/bppins Instagram - www.instagram.com/bulletproof // instagram.com/dave.asprey #daveasprey #bulletproof #biohacking
Views: 3350 Bulletproof
What does cryptochrome mean?
 
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What does cryptochrome mean? A spoken definition of cryptochrome. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cryptochrome Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
Circadian rhythm
 
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A circadian rhythm /sɜrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and rhythms have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" , and diem or dies, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous , they are adjusted to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers, commonly the most important of which is daylight. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 504 encyclopediacc
Circadian rhythm
 
25:58
A circadian rhythm /sɜrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and rhythms have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diem or dies, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers, commonly the most important of which is daylight. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2452 Audiopedia
Dr. Satchin Panda on Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health
 
01:31:34
Dr. Rhonda Patrick speaks with Dr. Satchidananda Panda, a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. Satchin's work deals specifically with the timing of food and it's relationship with our biological clocks governed by circadian rhythm and also the circadian rhythm in general. ▶︎ Get the show notes! https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/satchin-panda In this video we discuss... •The fascinating history of experimentation that ultimately elucidated the location for the region of the brain necessary for a properly timed sleep-wake cycles. • The relationship between our body's "master clock" and it's many peripheral clocks. • Why infants sleep so intermittently, instead of resting for a longer, sustained duration like healthy young adults... and why this sustained rest also goes haywire in the elderly. • The fascinating work Dr. Panda took part in that lead to the discovery of a specialized light receptor in the eye that sets circadian rhythms and is known as melanopsin. • The important relationship between the relatively light insensitive melanopsin, which requires around 1,000 lux of light to be fully activated, and its control of the circadian clock by means of activation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and suppression of melatonin. • The effects light exposure seems to have on next-day cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone that regulates around 10-20% of the human protein-encoding genome. • The clever experimental design by which Dr. Panda and his colleagues discovered that certain circadian rhythms, especially of the liver, are entrained by when we eat, instead of how much light we get. This underlines the fact that, when managing are circadian rhythm, both elements are important! • One of the more surprising effects of time-restricted feeding in mice eating a so-called healthy diet: increases in muscle mass and even endurance in some cases. You can try out time-restricted feeding and contribute to human research! Commit to 14 weeks and download Dr. Panda's mobile app to get started. Learn more: http://mycircadianclock.org/participant ▶︎ Visit Satchin Panda's Website: http://www.mycircadianclock.org/ ▶︎ Satchin Panda on Twitter: https://twitter.com/SatchinPanda Links related to FoundMyFitness: ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://youtube.com/user/FoundMyFitness?sub_confirmation=1 ▶︎ Join my weekly email newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=lifestyle-heuristic ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 508115 FoundMyFitness
Exploring different optogenetic systems: Photocaging
 
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This video is part of our brand new e-learning course on optogenetics, https://www.embl.de/training/e-learning/optogenetics/index.html. Here we explain the principles behind photocaging – an optogenetics method that allows us to control a protein’s function by tagging it with a photoreceptor, such a LOV domain. Executive producer, stop motion animation & voice over: Richard Grandison Scientific concept & graphic design: Daniel Krueger Video producer & motion graphics: Claudiu Grozea Scientific advisor: Stefano de Renzis
PHYTOCHROME -CSIR-NET | GATE | Plant Biology | Sensory photobiology
 
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Topic: PHYTOCHROME(plant Biology) Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light. Photomorphogenesis is a light induced growth with require the help of this photoreceptor. The classes of phytochrome ,mode of action,structure-all the things have been discussed in this lecture video. #PHYTOCHROME #SENSORYPHOTOBIOLOGY #CSIRNET/GATE/BARC #PLANTBIOLOGY This topic is taken for the CSIR-NET/GATE preparation. Introduction of Evolution for CSIR-NET/GATE https://youtu.be/5Mo1uuICho0 Flower Development genes for CSIR-NET/GATE https://youtu.be/fM8AIxZh7fM For more such videos.... like share and subscribe this channel...... Thank you
Views: 8667 TEACHING PATHSHALA
Circadian rhythm | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Circadian rhythm 00:01:19 1 History 00:05:52 2 Criteria 00:08:00 3 Origin 00:11:50 4 Importance in animals 00:12:51 4.1 Effect of circadian disruption 00:13:35 4.2 Effect of light–dark cycle 00:15:02 4.3 Arctic animals 00:16:06 4.4 Butterfly and moth 00:16:43 5 In plants 00:20:58 6 In iDrosophila/i 00:23:05 7 In mammals 00:25:04 7.1 Humans 00:25:57 7.2 Biological markers and effects 00:28:40 7.3 Outside the "master clock" 00:29:42 8 Light and the biological clock 00:30:13 9 Enforced longer cycles 00:31:03 10 Human health 00:31:59 10.1 Indoor lighting 00:32:33 10.2 Obesity and diabetes 00:33:31 10.3 Airline pilots and cabin crew 00:34:08 10.4 Disruption 00:35:15 10.5 Effect of drugs 00:36:40 11 Society and culture Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A circadian rhythm () is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called diurnal rhythms; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed.Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles. In medical science, an abnormal circadian rhythm in humans is known as circadian rhythm disorder.In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" in fruit flies.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Joseph Takahashi (UT Southwestern/HHMI) Part 3: Circadian Clocks: Molecular Basis of a Clock
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/circadian-clocks/#part-4 Lecture Overview: Circadian rhythms are an adaptation to the 24 hr day that we experience. Takahashi begins his talk with an historic overview of how the genes controlling circadian clocks were first identified in Drosophila and the cloning tour de force that was required to identify clock genes in mice. He also describes the experiments that resulted in the realization that all cells in the body have a circadian clock, not just cells in the brain. In part 1B, Takahashi explains that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain generates a circadian rhythm of fluctuating body temperature that, in turn, signals to peripheral tissues. Heat shock factor 1 is one of the signaling molecules responsible for communicating the temperature information and resetting peripheral clocks. In Part 2, Takahashi describes how crossing many mice of different genetic backgrounds allowed his lab to identify several genes that impact the output of the clock gene system through different mechanisms. Takahashi begins the last part of his presentation with the crystal structures of BMAL and Clock, the two central activators of clock gene transcription. He goes on to describe how his lab showed that BMAL/Clock controls the DNA binding activity of transcriptional regulators of not only cycling genes, but also of basic cell functions such as RNA polymerase 2 occupancy and histone modification. Speaker Bio: Joseph Takahashi received his BA in biology from Swarthmore College, his PhD in neuroscience from the University of Oregon, and he was a post-doctoral fellow with Martin Zatz at the National Institutes of Mental Health. He then spent 26 years at Northwestern University where he was a faculty member in the Department of Neurobiology and Physiology and in 1997 he became an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 2008, Takahashi joined the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center as the Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience. Using forward genetic screens in mice, Takahashi identified the first mammalian circadian gene "Clock" in 1997. Since then, his lab has gone on to identify and clone numerous circadian genes in both the brain and tissues throughout the body. Takahashi has received numerous awards and honors for his ground-breaking research including election to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 3453 iBiology
Joseph Takahashi (UT Southwestern/HHMI) Part 1B: Circadian Clocks: Clock Genes, Cells and Circuits 2
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/circadian-clocks/#part-2 Lecture Overview: Circadian rhythms are an adaptation to the 24 hr day that we experience. Takahashi begins his talk with an historic overview of how the genes controlling circadian clocks were first identified in Drosophila and the cloning tour de force that was required to identify clock genes in mice. He also describes the experiments that resulted in the realization that all cells in the body have a circadian clock, not just cells in the brain. In part 1B, Takahashi explains that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain generates a circadian rhythm of fluctuating body temperature that, in turn, signals to peripheral tissues. Heat shock factor 1 is one of the signaling molecules responsible for communicating the temperature information and resetting peripheral clocks. In Part 2, Takahashi describes how crossing many mice of different genetic backgrounds allowed his lab to identify several genes that impact the output of the clock gene system through different mechanisms. Takahashi begins the last part of his presentation with the crystal structures of BMAL and Clock, the two central activators of clock gene transcription. He goes on to describe how his lab showed that BMAL/Clock controls the DNA binding activity of transcriptional regulators of not only cycling genes, but also of basic cell functions such as RNA polymerase 2 occupancy and histone modification. Speaker Bio: Joseph Takahashi received his BA in biology from Swarthmore College, his PhD in neuroscience from the University of Oregon, and he was a post-doctoral fellow with Martin Zatz at the National Institutes of Mental Health. He then spent 26 years at Northwestern University where he was a faculty member in the Department of Neurobiology and Physiology and in 1997 he became an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 2008, Takahashi joined the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center as the Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience. Using forward genetic screens in mice, Takahashi identified the first mammalian circadian gene "Clock" in 1997. Since then, his lab has gone on to identify and clone numerous circadian genes in both the brain and tissues throughout the body. Takahashi has received numerous awards and honors for his ground-breaking research including election to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 5941 iBiology
Phytochrome
 
37:56
Ashish sir
Views: 364 Shivam Sharma
CIRCADIAN rhythm - WikiVidi Documentary
 
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A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" , and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called diurnal rhythms; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous , they are adjusted to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers , which include light, temperature and redox cycles. In medical science, an abnormal circadian rhythm in humans is known as circadian rhythm disorder. In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:01:33: History 00:04:09: Origin 00:08:39: Importance in animals 00:09:18: Effect of circadian disruption 00:10:06: Effect of light–dark cycle 00:11:42: Arctic animals 00:12:56: Butterfly migration 00:13:16: In plants 00:17:36: Biological clock in mammals 00:19:47: Humans 00:20:46: Biological markers and effects 00:23:46: Outside the "master clock" 00:24:48: Light and the biological clock 00:25:15: Enforced longer cycles 00:26:09: Human health 00:27:11: Indoor lighting 00:27:43: Obesity and diabetes 00:28:43: Airline pilots (and cabin crew) 00:29:24: Disruption 00:30:36: Effect of drugs ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circadian_rhythm
Steven Reppert (UMass) Part 1: Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration: Migration Overview
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/butterfly-migration/ Talk Overview: Reppert begins by describing the amazing long-distance migration of the Eastern North American Monarch butterfly. Each fall, several hundred million Monarchs fly up to 2500 miles from the eastern United States and southern Canada to a specific over-wintering area in central Mexico. How do the butterflies know when and where to fly? Reppert explains that the migration is directed largely by an innate sun compass. (In Part 1, the people who found the monarch over-wintering site were mistakenly identified as Ken and Karen Brugger. They were Ken and Catalina Brugger (now Catalina Trail).) In Part 2, Reppert focuses on the time-compensated sun compass system that guides the Monarch’s long migration. He describes how the butterfly eye can sense skylight cues used for directionality, including polarized UV light. This information is integrated in the central complex of the brain, which serves as the sun-compass, then is time compensated, and ultimately interacts with the motor system to control flight direction. While circadian clocks in the brain determine the seasonal migration of Monarchs, distinct circadian clocks in the antennae regulate time-compensation of the sun compass. Interestingly, work at the molecular level shows that the Monarch circadian clock mechanism is distinct and utilizes two cryptochrome (CRY) gene homologues; one previously found in Drosophila and one previously found in vertebrates. For more details of the monarch migration see http://reppertlab.org Speaker Biography: Steven Reppert received both his B.S. and M.D. degrees from the University of Nebraska. He did his clinical training in pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School and was a post-doctoral fellow at the NIH in the Section on Neuroendocrinology. He then joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School where he resided for 22 years before moving in 2001 to chair the Department of Neurobiology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. For the first 23 years of his research career, Reppert’s work primarily focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms of circadian clocks in mammals. Since 2002, his research has shifted to understanding the biological basis of the long-distance migration of the Monarch butterfly with a focus on its navigational abilities and the role of its unique circadian clock. Reppert’s pioneering research has been recognized with numerous awards including an NIH MERIT award, election as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the G.J. Mendel Honorary Medal for Merit in the Biological Sciences from the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
Views: 9811 iBiology
Magnetoreception Mysteries | Electricity of Life
 
08:44
JOIN US for the EU2016 Conference: Elegant Simplicity//June 17-19//https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2015/12/30/eu2016-home-page/ Continuing an inquiry into the electromagnetic sensitivity of various organisms, we take an accessible look at the biology involved. We consider some interactions with EMF from the scale of cow herds down to the nucleotides of DNA. For further Inquiry: A Quantitative Assessment of Torque-Transducer Models for Magnetoreception. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20086054 Magnetosensitive neurons mediate geomagnetic orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26083711 One Mechanism of Migratory Birds’ Direction Sense is Impaired by Radio and Electronic Noise. http://www.nature.com/news/electronics-noise-disorients-migratory-birds-1.15176 Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird http://cel.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=CEL&search_mode=CitingArticles&qid=1&SID=3D4VIpieafskpS4MXzZ&pReturnLink=&pSrcDesc=&page=1&UT=WOS:000330137900003&doc=10 “Magnetoreception of Directional Information in Birds Requires Nondegraded Vision.” http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(10)00779-7 Observation of Magnetic Field Effects on Transient Fluorescence Spectra of Cryptochrome 1 From Homing Pigeons http://cel.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=CEL&search_mode=CitingArticles&qid=1&SID=3D4VIpieafskpS4MXzZ&pReturnLink=&pSrcDesc=&page=1&UT=WOS:000330137900003&doc=9&cacheurlFromRightClick=no SOURCES Magnetic particle-mediated magnetoreception. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26333810 No evidence for intracellular magnetite in putative vertebrate magnetoreceptors identified by magnetic screening. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4291630/ “The Mystery of the Magnetic Cows” http://www.nature.com/news/the-mystery-of-the-magnetic-cows-1.9350 “Magnetic Cows are Visible from Space.” http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080825/full/news.2008.1059.html Further support for the alignment of cattle along magnetic field lines: reply to Hert et al. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00359-011-0674-1 Informative article on cryptochrome research written by two PhD-level scientists. http://spie.org/newsroom/technical-articles-archive/17-1800/1804-understanding-how-birds-navigate?ArticleID=x37204 Magnetically Sensitive light-induced Reactions in Cryptochrome are Consistent with its Proposed Role as a Magnetoreceptor. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22421133 Human Cryptochrome Exhibits Light-dependent Magnetosensitivity http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n6/full/ncomms1364.html Magnetic Field-Responsive Domain in the Human HSP70 Promoter. Lin H, Blank M, Goodman R. 1999. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 75:170-176. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10462715 Subnautica is a radical underwater exploration/building/survival game, available on Steam. http://unknownworlds.com/subnautica/ The ending song “Precipice” was originally composed by Kamakaze for Subnautica. https://soundcloud.com/kamakazi SUPPORT US ON PATREON AND WATCH OUR INFLUENCE GROW: “Changing the world through understanding of the Electric Universe." https://www.patreon.com/user?u=180095... Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 The Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-co... Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsp... Twitter: @tboltsproject Electric Universe by Wal Thornhill: http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Electric Universe T-shirts and Gifts: http://www.thunder-stuff.com The ideas expressed in videos presented on The Thunderbolts Project YouTube Channel do not necessarily express the views of T-Bolts Group Inc or The Thunderbolts Project(TM).
Views: 15611 ThunderboltsProject
Time-restricted eating and the effect of late night eating
 
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This clip was taken from the first FoundMyFitness interview with Dr. Satchin Panda found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-R-eqJDQ2nU.
Views: 681 FMF Clips
BSSR Lecture Series: Regulation of the dopaminergic reward circuit and manic-like behavior
 
49:36
Speaker-McClung, Colleen A., National Institutes of Health (U.S.) Multiple studies have suggested that disruptions in circadian rhythms are central to the development of mood and addiction disorders. However, the mechanisms by which circadian genes regulate mood and reward-related circuitry remains unclear. Our laboratory has found that mice with a mutation in the Clock gene (Clock∆19) have a complete behavioral profile that bears a striking resemblance to human mania (including hyperactivity, lowered levels of anxiety, increased preference and self-administration of drugs, and lowered levels of depression-related behavior) which can be reversed with chronic lithium treatment. Furthermore, the ClockΔ19 mice have an increase in dopaminergic activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) which is also normalized with lithium treatment. We have taken multiple approaches including RNA interference and optogenetics to better understand how CLOCK regulates dopaminergic activity and how this regulation is involved in the control of behavior. Moreover, in collaboration with Kafui Dzirasa and Miguel Nicolelis at Duke University, we found that the ClockΔ19 mice not only have increased dopaminergic activity, but also have a defect in the ability of neurons in the cortico-limbic circuit to synchronize firing while animals are exploring specific tasks. Thus the CLOCK protein is not only involved in controlling rhythms over the course of 24 hrs, but is also involved in the synchronization of activity between brain regions over short periods of time. CLOCK functions as a transcription factor and we have identified direct target genes that control dopaminergic activity which appear to be important in the reversal of phenotypes by lithium. Taken together, these results begin to show the mechanisms by which circadian genes regulate mood and reward, and suggest novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of mania and addictive disorders.
Views: 2669 NIHOD
Steven Reppert (UMass) Part 2: Monarch Butterfly Migration: A Time-Compensated Sun Compass
 
46:55
https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/butterfly-migration/#part-2 Talk Overview: Reppert begins by describing the amazing long-distance migration of the Eastern North American Monarch butterfly. Each fall, several hundred million Monarchs fly up to 2500 miles from the eastern United States and southern Canada to a specific over-wintering area in central Mexico. How do the butterflies know when and where to fly? Reppert explains that the migration is directed largely by an innate sun compass. (In Part 1, the people who found the monarch over-wintering site were mistakenly identified as Ken and Karen Brugger. They were Ken and Catalina Brugger (now Catalina Trail).) In Part 2, Reppert focuses on the time-compensated sun compass system that guides the Monarch’s long migration. He describes how the butterfly eye can sense skylight cues used for directionality, including polarized UV light. This information is integrated in the central complex of the brain, which serves as the sun-compass, then is time compensated, and ultimately interacts with the motor system to control flight direction. While circadian clocks in the brain determine the seasonal migration of Monarchs, distinct circadian clocks in the antennae regulate time-compensation of the sun compass. Interestingly, work at the molecular level shows that the Monarch circadian clock mechanism is distinct and utilizes two cryptochrome (CRY) gene homologues; one previously found in Drosophila and one previously found in vertebrates. For more details of the monarch migration see http://reppertlab.org Speaker Biography: Steven Reppert received both his B.S. and M.D. degrees from the University of Nebraska. He did his clinical training in pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School and was a post-doctoral fellow at the NIH in the Section on Neuroendocrinology. He then joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School where he resided for 22 years before moving in 2001 to chair the Department of Neurobiology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. For the first 23 years of his research career, Reppert’s work primarily focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms of circadian clocks in mammals. Since 2002, his research has shifted to understanding the biological basis of the long-distance migration of the Monarch butterfly with a focus on its navigational abilities and the role of its unique circadian clock. Reppert’s pioneering research has been recognized with numerous awards including an NIH MERIT award, election as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the G.J. Mendel Honorary Medal for Merit in the Biological Sciences from the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
Views: 3287 iBiology
What does verbalization mean?
 
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What does verbalization mean? A spoken definition of verbalization. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/verbalization
Resonance   Beings of Frequency documentary film
 
01:28:27
A well-researched, well-made, deeply disturbing documentary. From the source description: (Full Film) RESONANCE ➜ This James Russell film is a Sensational Eye Opening Documentary that examines 60 years of scientific research! ➜ Join the FACEBOOK page http://goo.gl/yf4Qs ➜ James Russell (Director + Producer) james(at)flatfrogfilms(dot)com http://www.FlatFrogFilms.com ➜ John Webster (Director) http://www.PatientZeroProductions.com This spectacular documentary uncovers for the very first time, the actual mechanisms by which mobile phone technology can cause cancer. And, how every single one of us is reacting to the biggest change in environment this planet has ever seen. Two billion years ago life first arrived on this planet; a planet, which was filled with a natural frequency. As life slowly evolved, it did so surrounded by this frequency. and Inevitably, it began tuning in. By the time mankind arrived on earth an incredible relationship had been struck; a relationship that science is just beginning to comprehend. Research is showing that being exposed to this frequency is absolutely integral to us. It controls our mental and physical health, it synchronizes our circadian rhythms, and it aids our immune system and improves our sense of wellbeing. Not only are we surrounded by natural frequencies, our bodies are filled with them too. Our cells communicate using electro magnetic frequencies. Our brain emits a constant stream of frequencies and our DNA delivers instructions, using frequency waves. Without them we couldn't exist for more than a second. This delicate balance has taken billions of years to perfect. But over the last 25 years the harmony has been disturbed. and disturbed dramatically. Mankind has submerged itself in an ocean of artificial frequencies. They are all around us, filling the air and drowning out the earth's natural resonance. To the naked eye the planet appears to be the same. But at a cellular level it is the biggest change that life on earth has endured; the affects of which we are just starting to see and feel. Originally sourced from AscendedVitality at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5vb9R0x_0NQ - More info there
Views: 96470 mooveegee
Photomorphogenic Meaning
 
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Video shows what photomorphogenic means. Of or relating to photomorphogenesis.. Photomorphogenic Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say photomorphogenic. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 206 ADictionary
Responses to Environmental Stresses in Plants in Hindi/Urdu - 12 Class Biology #157
 
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Responses to Environmental Stresses in Plants in Hindi/Urdu - 12 Class Biology #157 Download Notes : https://goo.gl/9ynxpg - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hello Everyone! Welcome to our channel Smart Study Education. Here You will Learn Lectures for many subjects of your academic / non academic courses including English, Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Mathematics etc for classes of school, college or university and many more. These Lectures will help you to gain knowledge whether you are a Student or Teacher or Learner. All Lectures will help you throughout your life. Find us on social Networks: Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/Smart-Study-Education-160845007843260 Twitter : https://www.twitter.com/smartstudyedu Google + : https://plus.google.com/116903287599774402171 Website/Blog : http://smartstudyedu.blogspot.com/ Subscribe Our Channel For More Videos: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjivnJETneyRvJI0vAHEDWQ Like , Comment and Share video with your friends and relatives to support us. Thanks for Watching
Views: 2854 Smart Study Education
Photolyase Meaning
 
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Video shows what photolyase means. An enzyme that repairs DNA that has been damaged by light.. Photolyase Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to say photolyase. Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary
Views: 354 ADictionary
Monarch butterfly
 
30:49
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae. It may be the most familiar North American butterfly. Its wings feature an easily recognizable orange and black pattern, with a wingspan of 8.9–10.2 cm (3½–4 in). (The viceroy butterfly is similar in color and pattern, but is markedly smaller, and has an extra black stripe across the hind wing.) The eastern North American monarch population is notable for its southward late summer/autumn migration from the United States and southern Canada to Mexico, covering thousands of miles. The western North American population of monarchs west of the Rocky Mountains most often migrate to sites in California but have been found in overwintering Mexico sites. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 138 Audiopedia
Plant physiology
 
22:39
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration, both parts of plant water relations, are studied by plant physiologists. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2290 Audiopedia
7 Ways EMF Technology Seriously Threatens Entire Populations
 
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Today's Alternative News Channel - 7 Ways EMF Technology Seriously Threatens Entire Populations Guest writer for Wake Up World Recently, over 180 medics and scientists sent a document to the European Union appealing for the suspension of the new 5G EMF technology planned to roll out. Essentially, the 11 page document warns that EMF technology is a serious environmental hazard, harmful to life. That the new 5G EMF technology has not been properly tested for safety and has been blindly approved without health evaluation. The medics and scientists call for a proper health evaluation and while being carried out a suspension of the 5G. However, the unconditional push for EMF technology continues. The push involves a number of individuals, particularly those in high places, biased and blinded by money or the want for control or population reduction, only seeing the EMF technology’s advantages. Flawed ideology and insanity ensues… In reflection of this, if allowed to continue uncontested, here are 7 ways by which EMF technology seriously threatens not just the health and life of humans, but also endangers the existence of non-human populations through upsetting the delicate balance of life. Remember, without nature’s delicate and intricate balance we will cease to exist. Source: https://wakeup-world.com/2017/10/31/7-ways-emf-technology-seriously-threatens-entire-populations/ See our playlist for additional information: POLITICS: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3vNhMt4w_SI_yFQvfelBTllKUpszHtGt HEALTH NEWS: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3vNhMt4w_SKrC2qOLET6ydlt3Lvx29i_ TECH AND SCIENCE STUFF: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3vNhMt4w_SKhC5M0NKTePMwwwezcPFjL Today's Alternative News https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCV6WBPEdQPZAVddWfmk1-Dg https://youtu.be/DZPjllgGP-A
Plant biochemistry | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_physiology 00:00:46 1 Aims 00:04:46 2 Biochemistry of plants 00:05:56 2.1 Constituent elements 00:06:45 2.2 Pigments 00:09:52 3 Signals and regulators 00:10:19 3.1 Plant hormones 00:11:41 3.2 Photomorphogenesis 00:13:29 3.3 Photoperiodism 00:15:07 4 Environmental physiology 00:16:38 4.1 Tropisms and nastic movements 00:18:32 4.2 Plant disease 00:20:01 5 History 00:20:10 5.1 Early history 00:22:07 5.2 Current research 00:22:42 6 Economic applications 00:22:51 6.1 Food production 00:23:34 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9684034115290305 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration, both parts of plant water relations, are studied by plant physiologists.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
휴대폰 산업과 인구통제(휴대폰 사용과 암발병 상관관계)
 
01:28:27
지구의 자기장과 인간의 자기장이 동일 그 자기환경에서 생명이 유지되는데... 오늘날 무선전화의 사용으로 그 환경이 파괴 인간의 세포가 해를 입고 있다. 세상을 지배하는 바벨론. 그 기만적 매트릭스를 파헤치는 공간입니다. 바벨론에서 탈출하기... 자본이 지배하는 왜곡된 세상에서 벗어나기... 자립과 생명의 길 찾기
Views: 2127 고발,세계정부