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Custer’s Trials: A Life on the Frontier of a New America
 
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Custer’s Trials: A Life on the Frontier of a New America In his new biography, Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winner T. J. Stiles radically changes our view of Gen. George Armstrong Custer and his turbulent times. Stiles paints a portrait of Custer both deeply personal and sweeping in scope, proving how much of Custer’s legacy has been ignored. A book signing follows the program.
Views: 7210 US National Archives
End of the Civil War Book Fair, Part 3: Their Last Full Measure: The Final Days of the Civil War
 
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2:00pm Historian Joseph Wheelan relates the dramatic events which followed one after another, leading ultimately to Lee’s surrender at Appomattox and Lincoln’s assassination. A book signing follows the discussion. To access live, real-time captioning, please click on the link below or insert the following URL into a separate browser window: http://www.streamtext.net/text.aspx?event=041815nara1100am
Views: 1569 US National Archives
ch 10) The Other Civil War
 
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chapter 10: A People's History (Of The United States) Howard Zinn. ~ Chapter 10, "The Other Civil War", covers the Anti-Rent movement, the Dorr Rebellion, the Flour Riot of 1837, the Molly Maguires, the rise of labor unions, the Lowell girls movement, and other class struggles centered around the various depressions of the 19th century. He describes the abuse of government power by corporations and the efforts by workers to resist those abuses.
Views: 9995 andi burridge
How to Ask Forrest Fenn a Question
 
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Join "A Gypsy's Kiss" as they tell you about their search for the treasure Forrest Fenn hid somewhere in the mountains north of Santa Fe, New Mexico in 2010 and described in his first memoir, "The Thrill of the Chase." #forrestfenn #fenntreasure #agypsyskiss
Views: 2246 AGK Media
Orchard Revolution, FULL MOVIE
 
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The news media is constantly reporting on the demise of America. They report on major problems like obesity, diabetes, and environmental pollution. Yet the news media rarely reports on the stories of hope, the stories of Americans taking action to overcome these problems. Director Matt Byron is sick and tired of the news media's fear mongering. He sets out to find stories of hope. He searches for people who are taking action to overcome America's human health and environmental health crises. Please support our film and watch in high definition at: https://vimeo.com/ondemand/orchardrevolution We hope you enjoy the film and we hope it inspires you to plant 5 fruit trees!
Views: 1230 Orchard Revolution
NEH ODH Lightning Rounds 2015 HD
 
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NEH Office of Digital Humanities 2015 Project Directors Meeting, September 25, 2015. Lightning round presentations by project directors of National Endowment for the Humanities grant-supported digital humanities projects. Please click "show more" below for links to the Lightning Round for each group of grantees. To view a complete list of projects and access direct links to the Lightning Round for Digital Humanities Start-Up Grants, please visit: http://www.neh.gov/divisions/odh/grant-news/videos-2015-digital-humanities-start-grantees To view a complete list of projects and access direct links to Lightning Round videos for Digital Humanities Implementation Grants, please visit: http://www.neh.gov/divisions/odh/grant-news/videos-2015-digital-humanities-implementation-grantees To view a complete list of projects and access direct links to Lightning Round videos for Special Projects, 2016/2017 Institutes for Advanced Topics in the Digital Humanities, and NEH/DFG Bilateral Digital Humanities Program Grantees, please visit: http://www.neh.gov/divisions/odh/grant-news/videos-special-projects-20162017-institutes-advanced-topics-in-the-digital-humanities-and-nehdfg-bil
Views: 1168 NEHgov
Conquest Over Time by Michael Shaara
 
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Pat Travis, a spacer renowned for his luck, is suddenly quite out of it. His job is to beat his competitors to sign newly-Contacted human races to commercial contracts... But what can he do when he finds he's on a planet that consults astrology for literally every major decision - and he has arrived on one of the worst-aspected days in history?
Views: 1036 Audiobooks Unleashed
Battle of Chickamauga | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Battle of Chickamauga 00:02:37 1 Background 00:02:45 1.1 Military situation 00:06:03 1.2 "iRiver of Death/i" 00:07:28 2 Initial movements in the Chickamauga Campaign 00:07:39 2.1 Planning the Union advance 00:10:08 2.2 Crossing the Tennessee 00:12:44 2.3 Into Georgia 00:14:38 2.4 Davis's Cross Roads 00:17:04 2.5 Final maneuvers 00:19:52 3 Opposing forces 00:20:01 3.1 Union 00:21:39 3.2 Confederate 00:23:20 4 Opening engagements 00:23:29 4.1 September 18 00:25:43 5 Battle 00:25:51 5.1 First day: September 19 00:38:17 5.2 Planning for the second day 00:43:55 5.3 Second day: September 20 01:02:03 6 Aftermath 01:04:39 6.1 Casualties 01:05:59 6.2 Reactions and effects 01:08:26 6.3 Subsequent events 01:09:05 7 Additional battle maps 01:09:22 8 Battlefield preservation 01:09:50 9 Portrayals in fiction and film 01:10:51 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 18 – 20, 1863, between U.S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia — the Chickamauga Campaign. It was the first major battle of the war fought in Georgia, the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater, and involved the second-highest number of casualties after the Battle of Gettysburg. The battle was fought between the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Gen. Braxton Bragg, and was named for Chickamauga Creek, which meanders near the battle area in northwest Georgia (and ultimately flows into the Tennessee River about 3.5 miles (5.6 km) northeast of downtown Chattanooga). After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg's army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis's Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans's army, defeat it, and then move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps. As Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19. Bragg's men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault. In late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosecrans accidentally created an actual gap, directly in the path of an eight-brigade assault on a narrow front by Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, whose corps had been detached from the Army of Northern Virginia. In the resulting rout, Longstreet's attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge ("Snodgrass Hill"), forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults, Thomas and his men held until twilight. Union forces then retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Siege of Vicksburg | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Siege of Vicksburg 00:02:04 1 Background 00:02:13 1.1 Military situation 00:04:29 1.2 Fortifications 00:05:33 2 Opposing forces 00:05:42 2.1 Union 00:06:21 2.2 Confederate 00:06:48 3 Siege 00:06:56 3.1 Assaults 00:13:39 3.2 Siege operations 00:18:52 3.3 Command changes 00:20:46 3.4 Louisiana operations 00:23:31 3.5 Crater at the Third Louisiana Redan 00:24:56 3.6 Capture 00:27:35 4 Aftermath 00:27:59 5 Battlefield preservation 00:29:24 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Mississippi, led by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River; therefore, capturing it completed the second part of the Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan. When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. After holding out for more than forty days, with their reinforcement and supplies nearly gone, the garrison finally surrendered on July 4. The successful ending of the Vicksburg Campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort, as described in the Aftermath section of the campaign article. Some historians—e.g., Ballard, p. 308—suggest that the decisive battle in the campaign was actually the Battle of Champion Hill, which, once won by Grant, made victory in the subsequent siege a foregone conclusion. This action (combined with the surrender of Port Hudson to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks on July 9) yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict. The Confederate surrender on July 4, 1863 is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen. Robert E. Lee's defeat at Gettysburg by Maj. Gen. George Meade, the turning point of the war. It cut off the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederate States, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two for the duration of the war. The Union victory also permanently severed communication between the Trans-Mississippi Department and the balance of the Confederacy.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Siege of Petersburg | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Siege of Petersburg 00:01:30 1 Background 00:01:39 1.1 Military situation 00:06:37 2 Opposing forces 00:06:46 2.1 Union 00:10:00 2.2 Confederate 00:11:59 2.3 Comparison between Union and Confederate armies 00:13:21 2.4 Role of African Americans 00:13:48 3 Initial attempts to capture Petersburg 00:13:59 3.1 Butler's assault (June 9) 00:17:06 3.2 Meade's assaults (June 15–18,1864) 00:24:09 4 Initial attempts to cut the railroads (June 21–30) 00:25:05 4.1 Jerusalem Plank Road (June 21–23) 00:27:26 4.2 Wilson-Kautz Raid (June 22 – July 1) 00:33:59 5 First Battle of Deep Bottom (July 27–29) 00:37:01 6 The Crater (July 30) 00:41:42 7 Second Deep Bottom (August 14–20) 00:45:52 8 Operations against the Weldon Railroad 00:46:02 8.1 Globe Tavern (August 18–21) 00:49:18 8.2 Second Reams Station (August 25) 00:53:16 9 Beefsteak Raid (September 14–17) 00:55:25 10 Union offensives, late September 00:55:35 10.1 New Market Heights (September 29–30) 00:56:23 10.2 Peebles Farm (September 30 – October 2) 00:57:39 11 Actions near Richmond, October 00:57:49 11.1 Darbytown and New Market Roads (October 7) 00:58:26 11.2 Darbytown Road (October 13) 00:58:57 11.3 Fair Oaks and Darbytown Road (October 27–28) 00:59:37 12 Boydton Plank Road (October 27–28) 01:00:31 13 Hatcher's Run (February 5–7, 1865) 01:01:46 14 Confederate breakout attempt at Fort Stedman (March 25) 01:05:55 15 Aftermath 01:07:41 16 Classifying the campaigns 01:08:30 17 Battlefield preservation 01:09:42 18 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War. Although it is more popularly known as the Siege of Petersburg, it was not a classic military siege, in which a city is usually surrounded and all supply lines are cut off, nor was it strictly limited to actions against Petersburg. The campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Petersburg unsuccessfully and then constructed trench lines that eventually extended over 30 miles (48 km) from the eastern outskirts of Richmond, Virginia, to around the eastern and southern outskirts of Petersburg. Petersburg was crucial to the supply of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army and the Confederate capital of Richmond. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad. Many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned both cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I, earning it a prominent position in military history. It also featured the war's largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffin's Farm.
Views: 19 wikipedia tts
HSN | Connected Life with Brett Chukerman 01.03.2018 - 07 PM
 
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Shop Connected Life on HSN.com https://goo.gl/ihbYFU .Brett makes living connected easy with innovative technology and meaningful motivation.Prices shown on the previously recorded video may not represent the current price. View hsn.com to view the current selling price. Prices shown on the previously recorded video may not represent the current price. View hsn.com to view the current selling price.SHOP NOW http://www.hsn.com
Views: 97 HSNtv
2006 Lebanon War | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: 2006 Lebanon War 00:03:41 1 Background 00:06:48 1.1 Abduction efforts in the year prior to conflict 00:07:52 2 Summary of the war 00:08:01 2.1 Hezbollah cross-border raid 00:10:34 2.2 Israeli response 00:14:03 2.3 Israeli air and artillery attacks 00:19:37 2.4 Hezbollah rocket attacks 00:24:25 2.5 Ground war 00:26:28 2.6 Position of Lebanon 00:29:31 2.7 Ceasefire 00:31:09 3 Techniques 00:31:18 3.1 Cluster and phosphorus munitions 00:33:56 3.2 Psychological warfare 00:35:42 4 Casualties and damage 00:35:52 4.1 Lebanese civilians and combatants 00:37:55 4.2 Hezbollah and other militias 00:43:25 4.2.1 Hezbollah commanders 00:45:35 4.3 Lebanese Armed Forces 00:45:50 4.4 Israeli civilians 00:47:01 4.5 Israel Defense Forces 00:48:35 4.6 Environmental and archeological damage 00:50:43 4.7 Industrial damage 00:53:49 5 Reactions 00:53:58 5.1 International action and reaction 00:55:35 5.2 Allegations, accusations and reports of war crimes 01:03:08 5.3 Media coverage 01:07:51 6 Reviews of the conflict 01:08:14 6.1 Lebanon 01:10:08 6.2 Israel 01:16:46 6.2.1 Winograd Commission report 01:18:48 6.3 International 01:25:24 6.4 Financial and political repercussions 01:26:14 7 Aftermath 01:26:22 7.1 Post-ceasefire events 01:35:17 7.2 Prisoner swap 01:36:00 7.3 In film 01:37:09 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (Arabic: حرب تموز‎, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (Hebrew: מלחמת לבנון השנייה‎, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon. Due to unprecedented Iranian military support to Hezbollah before and during the war, some consider it the first round of the Iran–Israel proxy conflict, rather than a continuation of the Arab–Israeli conflict.The conflict was precipitated by the 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid. On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah fighters fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence. The ambush left three soldiers dead. Two Israeli soldiers were abducted and taken by Hezbollah to Lebanon. Five more were killed in Lebanon, in a failed rescue attempt. Hezbollah demanded the release of Lebanese prisoners held by Israel in exchange for the release of the abducted soldiers. Israel refused and responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon. Israel attacked both Hezbollah military targets and Lebanese civilian infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport. The IDF launched a ground invasion of Southern Lebanon. Israel also imposed an air and naval blockade. Hezbollah then launched more rockets into northern Israel and engaged the IDF in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.The conflict is believed to have killed between 1,191 and 1,300 Lebanese people, and 165 Israelis. It severely damaged Lebanese civil infrastructure, and displaced approximately one million Lebanese and 300,000–500,000 Israelis.On 11 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 (UNSCR 1701) in an effort to end the hostilities. The resolution, which was approved by both the Lebanese and Israeli governments the following days, called for disarmament of Hezbollah, for withdrawal of the IDF from Lebanon, and for the deployment of the Lebanese Armed Forces and an enlarged United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the south. UNIFIL was given an expanded mandate, i ...
Views: 188 wikipedia tts
Emancipation Proclamation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Emancipation Proclamation 00:05:00 1 Authority 00:08:02 2 Coverage 00:11:11 3 Background 00:11:20 3.1 Military action prior to emancipation 00:12:10 3.2 Governmental action towards emancipation 00:14:45 3.3 Public opinion of emancipation 00:19:46 4 Drafting and issuance of the proclamation 00:24:46 5 Implementation 00:26:27 5.1 Immediate impact 00:31:21 5.2 Political impact 00:35:29 5.2.1 Confederate response 00:37:47 5.3 International impact 00:39:30 6 Gettysburg Address 00:40:02 7 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) 00:40:37 8 Postbellum 00:42:10 9 Critiques 00:44:18 10 Legacy in the civil rights era 00:44:28 10.1 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 00:46:29 10.1.1 The "Second Emancipation Proclamation" 00:47:01 10.2 President John F. Kennedy 00:48:17 10.3 President Lyndon B. Johnson 00:50:58 11 In popular culture 00:52:06 12 See also 00:53:14 13 Notes 00:53:23 13.1 Primary sources 00:53:32 14 Further reading 00:53:41 15 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the former slave became free. Ultimately, the rebel surrender liberated and resulted in the proclamation's application to all of the designated former slaves. It did not cover slaves in Union areas that were freed by state action (or three years later by the 13th amendment in December 1865). It was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch (including the Army and Navy) of the United States.The Proclamation ordered the freedom of all slaves in ten states. Because it was issued under the president's authority to suppress rebellion (war powers), it necessarily excluded areas not in rebellion, but still applied to more than 3.5 million of the 4 million slaves. The Proclamation was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces; it was not a law passed by Congress. The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U.S government issued a series of warnings in the summer of 1862 under the Second Confiscation Act, allowing Southern Confederate supporters 60 days to surrender, or face confiscation of land and slaves. The Proclamation also ordered that suitable persons among those freed could be enrolled into the paid service of United States' forces, and ordered the Union Army (and all segments of the Executive branch) to "recognize and maintain the freedom of" the ex-slaves. The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, and did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves (called freedmen). It made the eradication of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union.Around 25,000 to 75,000 slaves in regions where the US Army was active were immediately emancipated. It could not be enforced in areas still under rebellion, but, as the Union army took control of Confederate regions, the Proclamation provided the legal framework for freeing more than three and a half million slaves in those regions. Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for later return. The Proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederate-held lands; it did not apply to those in the four slave states that were not in rebellion (Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and Missouri, which were unnamed), nor to Tennessee (unnamed but occupied by Union troops since 1862) and lower Louisiana (also under occupation), and specifically excluded those ...
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
History of the United States (1849–1865) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the United States (1849–1865) 00:02:34 1 Economic and cultural changes 00:02:44 1.1 Developing a Market Economy 00:06:15 1.2 Immigration and Labor 00:08:31 2 Political upheaval 00:08:41 2.1 Wilmot Proviso 00:09:34 2.2 The Popular Sovereignty Debate 00:10:56 2.3 California Gold Rush 00:12:09 2.4 Compromise of 1850 00:13:30 2.5 Antislavery and abolitionism 00:16:05 2.6 Kansas–Nebraska Act 00:17:51 2.7 Bleeding Kansas 00:19:24 2.8 The new Republican Party 00:20:22 2.9 Election of 1856 00:22:37 2.10 Dred Scott decision 00:24:13 2.11 Lincoln-Douglas debates 00:26:29 2.12 John Brown's raid 00:28:08 2.13 Election of 1860 00:29:45 2.14 Secession 00:30:50 3 Civil War 00:33:18 3.1 War in the East 00:36:43 3.2 War in the West 00:37:42 3.3 End of the Confederacy 00:38:47 3.4 Home fronts 00:38:56 3.4.1 United States 00:41:33 3.4.2 Confederate States 00:43:50 3.5 Assassination of Abraham Lincoln 00:44:42 4 See also 00:45:23 5 Notes 00:45:32 6 Further reading 00:49:56 7 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Industrialization went forward in the Northwest. A rail network and a telegraph network linked the nation economically, opening up new markets. Immigration brought millions of European workers and farmers to the North. In the South, planters shifted operations (and slaves) from the poor soils of the Southeast to the rich cotton lands of the Southwest. Issues of slavery in the new territories acquired in the War with Mexico (which ended in 1848) were temporarily resolved by the Compromise of 1850. One provision, the Fugitive Slave Law, sparked intense controversy, as revealed in the enormous interest in the plight of the escaped slave in Uncle Tom's Cabin, an anti-slavery novel and play. In 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act reversed long-standing compromises by providing that each new state of the Union would decide its posture on slavery. The newly formed Republican Party stood against the expansion of slavery and won control of most northern states (with enough electoral votes to win the presidency in 1860). The invasion of Bloody Kansas by pro- and anti-slavery factions intent on voting slavery up or down, with resulting bloodshed, angered both North and South. The Supreme Court tried to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories with a pro-slavery ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that angered the North. After the 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States between late 1860 and 1861, establishing a rebel government, the Confederate States of America on February 9, 1861. The Civil War began when Confederate General Pierre Beauregard opened fire upon Union troops at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Four more states seceded as Lincoln called for troops to fight an insurrection. The next four years were the darkest in American history as the nation tore at itself using the latest military technology and highly motivated soldiers. The urban, industrialized Northern states (the Union) eventually defeated the mainly rural, agricultural Southern states (the Confederacy), but between 600,000 and 700,000 American soldiers (on both sides combined) were killed, and much of the infrastructure of the South was devastated. About 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South. In the end, slavery was abolished, and the Union was restored, richer and more powerful than ever, while the South was embittered and impoverished.
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Judah P. Benjamin | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Judah P. Benjamin 00:02:30 1 Early and personal life 00:08:18 2 Louisiana lawyer 00:11:33 3 Electoral career 00:11:43 3.1 State politician 00:15:36 3.2 Mexican railroad 00:16:44 3.3 Election to the Senate 00:19:20 3.4 Spokesman for slavery 00:23:20 3.5 Secession crisis 00:27:55 4 Confederate statesman 00:28:04 4.1 Attorney General 00:31:39 4.2 Secretary of War 00:38:58 4.3 Confederate Secretary of State 00:39:26 4.3.1 Basis of Confederate foreign policy 00:41:49 4.3.2 Appointment 00:43:27 4.3.3 Early days (1862–1863) 00:48:14 4.3.4 Increasing desperation (1863–1865) 00:52:52 5 Escape 00:57:41 6 Exile 01:03:22 7 Appraisal 01:09:25 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Judah Philip Benjamin, QC (August 11, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was a lawyer and politician who was a United States Senator from Louisiana, a Cabinet officer of the Confederate States and, after his escape to the United Kingdom at the end of the American Civil War, an English barrister. Benjamin was the first Jew to be elected to the United States Senate who had not renounced that faith, and was the first Jew to hold a Cabinet position in North America. Benjamin was born to Sephardic Jewish parents from London, who had moved to St. Croix in the Danish West Indies when it was occupied by Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Seeking greater opportunities, his family immigrated to the United States, eventually settling in Charleston, South Carolina. Judah Benjamin attended Yale College but left without graduating. He moved to New Orleans, where he read law and passed the bar. Benjamin rose rapidly both at the bar and in politics. He became a wealthy planter and slaveowner and was elected to and served in both houses of the Louisiana legislature prior to his election by the legislature to the US Senate in 1852. There, he was an eloquent supporter of slavery. After Louisiana seceded in 1861, Benjamin resigned as senator and returned to New Orleans. He soon moved to Richmond after Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him as Attorney General. Benjamin had little to do in that position, but Davis was impressed by his competence and appointed him as Secretary of War. Benjamin firmly supported Davis, and the President reciprocated the loyalty by promoting him to Secretary of State in March 1862, while Benjamin was being criticized for the rebel defeat at the Battle of Roanoke Island. As Secretary of State, Benjamin attempted to gain official recognition for the Confederacy by France and the United Kingdom, but his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. To preserve the Confederacy as military defeats made its situation increasingly desperate, he advocated freeing and arming the slaves late in the war, but his proposals were only partially accepted in the closing month of the war. When Davis fled the Confederate capital of Richmond in early 1865, Benjamin went with him. He left the presidential party and was successful in escaping from the mainland United States, but Davis was captured by Union troops. Benjamin sailed to Great Britain, where he settled and became a barrister, again rising to the top of his profession before retiring in 1883. He died in Paris the following year.
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The Long Way Home / Heaven Is in the Sky / I Have Three Heads / Epitaph's Spoon River Anthology
 
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Spoon River Anthology (1915), by Edgar Lee Masters, is a collection of short free-form poems that collectively describe the life of the fictional small town of Spoon River, named after the real Spoon River that ran near Masters' home town. The collection includes two hundred and twelve separate characters, all providing two-hundred forty-four accounts of their lives and losses. The poems were originally published in the magazine Reedy's Mirror. Each following poem is an epitaph of a dead citizen, delivered by the dead themselves. They speak about the sorts of things one might expect: some recite their histories and turning points, others make observations of life from the outside, and petty ones complain of the treatment of their graves, while few tell how they really died. Speaking without reason to lie or fear the consequences, they construct a picture of life in their town that is shorn of façades. The interplay of various villagers — e.g. a bright and successful man crediting his parents for all he's accomplished, and an old woman weeping because he is secretly her illegitimate child — forms a gripping, if not pretty, whole. The subject of afterlife receives only the occasional brief mention, and even those seem to be contradictory. The work features such characters as Tom Merritt, Amos Sibley, Carl Hamblin, Fiddler Jones and A.D. Blood. Many of the characters that make appearances in Spoon River Anthology were based on real people that Masters knew or heard of in the two towns in which he grew up, Petersburg and Lewistown, Illinois. Most notable is Ann Rutledge, regarded in local legend to be Abraham Lincoln's early love interest though there is no actual proof of such a relationship. Rutledge's grave can still be found in a Petersburg cemetery, and a tour of graveyards in both towns reveals most of the surnames that Masters applied to his characters. Other local legends assert that Masters' fictional portrayal of local residents, often in unflattering light, created a lot of embarrassment and aggravation in his hometown. This is offered as an explanation for why he chose not to settle down in Lewistown or Petersburg. Spoon River Anthology is often used in second year characterization work in the Meisner technique of actor training. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spoon_River_Anthology
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Korean War | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Korean War Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁; Hanja: 韓國戰爭; RR: Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosŏn'gŭl: 조국해방전쟁; Hancha: 祖國解放戰爭; MR: Choguk haebang chŏnjaeng, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.As a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states. Both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.After the first two months of war, South Korean and U.S. forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces rapidly approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. The surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, and the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was ever signed, and according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to sign a treaty by the end of the year to formally end the Korean War.As a war undeclared by all participants, the conflict helped bring the term "police action" into common use. It also led to the permanent alteration of the balance of power within the United Nations, where Resolution 377—passed in 1950 to allow a bypassing of the Security Council if that body could not reach an agreement—led to the General Assembly displacing the Security Council as the primary organ of the UN.
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Confederate States of America | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Confederate States of America Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.Each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, which was considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch practically overnight. After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy later accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were they ever largely controlled by Confederate forces; Confederate shadow governments attempted to control the two states but were later exiled from them. The government of the United States (the Union) rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished. The war lacked a formal end; nearly all Confederate forces had been forced into surrender or deliberately disbanded by the end of 1865, by which point the dwindling manpower and resources of the Confederacy were facing overwhelming odds. By 1865, Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared".
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Confederate States of America | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:14:48
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Confederate States of America Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.Each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, which was considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch practically overnight. After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy later accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither officially declared secession nor were they ever largely controlled by Confederate forces; Confederate shadow governments attempted to control the two states but were later exiled from them. The government of the United States (the Union) rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished. The war lacked a formal end; nearly all Confederate forces had been forced into surrender or deliberately disbanded by the end of 1865, by which point the dwindling manpower and resources of the Confederacy were facing overwhelming odds. By 1865, Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared".
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History of Alabama | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Alabama 00:07:20 1 Indigenous peoples, early history 00:07:31 1.1 Precontact 00:12:46 2 European colonization 00:24:20 3 Early statehood 00:31:56 4 Secession and Civil War, 1861-1865 00:39:45 4.1 Losses 00:41:27 5 Reconstruction, 1865-1875 00:48:48 6 Democratic politics and disfranchisement 1874-1901 00:53:30 7 Progressive era 1900-1930 00:58:45 7.1 Railroads and industry 01:00:38 8 New South, 1914-1945 01:06:23 9 Civil Rights Movement and redistricting, 1945-1975 01:15:24 10 1975-2000 01:15:36 11 Twenty-first century, 2000-present 01:16:22 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7698391929341336 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Alabama became a state of the United States of America on December 14, 1819. The United States arranged for Indian Removal after 1830, relocating most Southeast tribes to west of the Mississippi River to what was then called Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). These actions affected the Cherokee, Creek (Muscogee), and Chickasaw, among others. After this, European-American arrived in large numbers, bringing or buying African Americans in the domestic slave trade. In antebellum Alabama, wealthy planters created large cotton plantations based in the fertile central Black Belt of the upland region, which depended on the labor of enslaved Africans. Tens of thousands of slaves were transported to and sold in the state by slave traders who purchased them in the Upper South. In the mountains and foothills, poorer whites practiced subsistence farming. By 1860 blacks (nearly all slaves) comprised 45 percent of the state's 964,201 people. The state's wealthy planters considered slavery essential to their economy. As one of the largest slaveholding states, Alabama was among the first six states to secede. It declared its secession in January 1861 and joined the Confederate States of America in February. During the ensuing American Civil War Alabama had moderate levels of warfare. The population suffered economic losses and hardships as a result of the war. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all enslaved people in Confederate states. The Southern capitulation in 1865 ended the Confederate state government. A decade of Reconstruction began, a controversial time that has a range of interpretation. Its biracial government established the first public schools and welfare institutions in the state. After the war, planters worked to get their vast cotton plantations back into production. African Americans chose to exert some independence as free tenant farmers and sharecroppers, rather than working in labor gangs. Wherever possible, African-American women left the fields. Small farms, which produced general crops before the war, turned to cotton as a cash crop. The market for cotton was overloaded, and prices dropped 50%.For a half century after the Civil War, Alabama was a poor, heavily rural state, with an economy based on cotton; most farmers were tenant, sharecroppers or laborers who did not own land. Reconstruction ended when conservative white Democrats, calling themselves known as "Redeemers" regained control of the state legislature by both legal and extralegal means (including violence and harassment). They established political and social dominance over African Americans. In 1901, Southern Democrats passed a state Constitution that effectively disfranchised most African Americans (who in 1900 comprised more than 45 percent of the state's population), as well as tens of thousands of poor whites. By 1941, a total 600,000 poor whites and 520,000 African Americans had been disfranchised. In addition, despite massive population changes in the state that accompanied urbanization and industrialization, the rural-dominated legislature refused to redistrict from 1901 to the 1960s, leading to massive malapportionment in Congressional and s ...
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