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Blood Types:  ABO and Rh (with donuts and sprinkles!)
 
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All about blood types - ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON'T memorize that donor / recipient table - watch this video instead! Links to videos mentioned: Mendelian Genetics: Fun with Cats and Peas http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI JOIN THE FUN all over the WEB: SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/user/ThePenguinProf FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ThePenguinProf GOOGLE+: https://plus.google.com/+Penguinprof/posts TWITTER: https://twitter.com/penguinprof WEB: http://www.penguinprof.com/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIDEO DETAILS: Blood Groups: ABO and Rh Blood Group Systems 32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system Discovery of ABO Blood Types ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not Inheritance Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.) ABO Analogy: Donuts and Sprinkles donut = red blood cell A sprinkles = A antigens B sprinkles = B antigens no sprinkles = no antigens (plain donut) What are the antigens chemically? Alleles in the ABO System i = base (plain donut) IA = encodes A antigens IB = encodes B antigens Allele Combinations ii IAIA or IAi IBIB or IBi IAIB Antigens and Antibodies The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system Antibody Structure Antigen + Antibody = agglutination reaction Agglutination = the clumping of particles Latin: agglutinare meaning 'to glue' Mixing of all blood groups and the result KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!! The Rh Antigen Inherited in Mendelian fashion! Medical issue: Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus Good News... Rho(D) Globulin Treatment ("RhoGAM")
Views: 623097 ThePenguinProf
Blood Typing Explained
 
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Explaining what Antigen, Antibody, and agglutination mean as they relate to blood typing. The basics of how a blood typing card works is also explained.
Views: 34115 Ren Hartung
How to test to know ABO Blood group and Rh Typing by RJH - Medical video - RJ Harish
 
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This video will guide you on how to test blood group at home with the help of Anti A, B and D (Rh) monoclonal antibody reagents. Blood typing procedure: 1. Mix! First mix the each drop of blood with three different reagents including either of the three different antibodies, A, B or Rh antibodies! 2. Look for agglutination! Then you look at what has happened. ... 3. Figure out the ABO blood group! ... 4. Figure out the Rh blood group! ... 5. Figure out the blood type! Blood is often grouped according to the ABO blood typing system. This method breaks blood types down into four categories: Type A Type B Type AB Type O Rh +ve or -ve Blood typing is also done to tell whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO typing. Normal Results ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: • Anti-A serum, you have type A blood • Anti-B serum, you have type B blood • Both anti-A and anti-B serums, you have type AB blood If your blood cells do not stick together when anti-A and anti-B are added, you have type O blood. RH typing: • If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-Rh serum, you have type Rh-positive blood. • If your blood does not clot when mixed with anti-Rh serum, you have type Rh-negative blood. The last slide blood group is B -ve as you can see clumping/agglutination with Anti-B reagent and no agglutination with rest 2 Considerations There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If they are not detected, you may still have a reaction when receiving certain types of blood, even if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched. A process called cross-matching followed by a Coombs' test can help detect these minor antigens and is routinely done prior to transfusions, except in emergency situations.
Views: 22776 Dr Harish R J
Blood types | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy
 
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Created by Patrick van Nieuwenhuizen. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/blood-cell-lineages?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/red-blood-cells?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Health & Medicine on Khan Academy: No organ quite symbolizes love like the heart. One reason may be that your heart helps you live, by moving ~5 liters (1.3 gallons) of blood through almost 100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) of blood vessels every single minute! It has to do this all day, everyday, without ever taking a vacation! Now that is true love. Learn about how the heart works, how blood flows through the heart, where the blood goes after it leaves the heart, and what your heart is doing when it makes the sound “Lub Dub.” About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Health & Medicine channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1RAowgA3q8Gl7exSWJuDEw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 231493 khanacademymedicine
How To Test Your Own Blood Groups ?
 
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This video will guide you on how to test your own blood group at home with the help of the fluids. These are actually anti body to A, B and D (which is Rh factor). So here we will test the blood groups by using our solutions. So I pricked my finger, put 3 drops of blood on slide and then solution was put in form of drop. Then the drops are mixed. Then see for agglutination reaction in form of clumping. Then compare with the pics given in the video and see how different blood groups look like. My blood group is B-ve.
Views: 757879 Dr. Vikram
Blood Types
 
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Paul Andersen explains the importance of blood types in blood transfusions. He starts with a brief discussion of blood antigens and antibodies. He describes how the ABO differs from the Rh blood type. He shows you how to solve simple genetic problems using Punnett squares. He then talks about the percentage distribution of the different types and the problems that may result during pregnancy. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 673544 Bozeman Science
Agglutination Video Intro to Blood Typing
 
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Recorded with https://screencast-o-matic.com
Views: 197 Amber Uthe
Blood Banking:  How antibody size affects the amount of agglutination.
 
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This video illustrates the difference in immunoglobulin/antibody structure and how it relates to the gradeable size of agglutination reactions. Why do I see agglutination in the AHG phase but not in the 37 phase? Watch the video and find out! 😁
What is AUTOAGGLUTINATION? What does AUTOAGGLUTINATION mean' AUTOAGGLUTINATION meaning
 
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What is AUTOAGGLUTINATION? What does AUTOAGGLUTINATION mean' AUTOAGGLUTINATION meaning - AUTOAGGLUTINATION pronunciation - AUTOAGGLUTINATION definition - AUTOAGGLUTINATION explanation - How to pronounce AUTOAGGLUTINATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Autoagglutination represents clumping of an individual's red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) by his or her own serum due to the RBCs being coated on their surface by antibodies. Autoagglutination is seen to occur in a type of immune mediated hemolytic anemia known as “cold antibody hemolytic anemia”. Here, the antibodies which act on the erythrocytes are active at temperatures below 30 degree C. The cold reacting antibody has maximal activity at 4 degree C and at this temperature hemolysis, rupture of erythrocytes, is not activated. The antibodies are of the class of IgM in 85% of cases and in 15% a subtype of IgG known as Donath-Landsteiner antibody. IgM molecules, being large, are able to form bridges across adjacent erythrocytes, thereby leading to agglutination. Autoagglutination can result in visible clumping of erythrocytes in the collection device. Automated cell counters may produce abnormal values as the agglutinated cells may be counted as single cells. Problems can also occur when autoagglutinated blood is tested for ABO and Rh blood grouping / typing and during cross-matching at the blood bank. The agglutination results in blood being typed uniformly as ‘AB Positive’ and as being incompatible at cross-match. This can be overcome by washing the cells using warm saline prior to testing. Autoagglutination should also be distinguished from “Rouleaux formation” wherein normal blood tends to form stacks on keeping, which disperses on dilution with normal saline. Diagnosis of autoagglutination can be confirmed by a positive “Direct Antiglobulin Test” aka Direct Coomb’s test using Coomb’s serum (positivity is seen in 75% of cases) The development of the cold agglutinins (as cold reacting antibodies are also known as) may result from the following conditions 1. Infection with mycoplasma organisms. 2. Infectious mononucleosis. 3. Lymphoid malignant disorders. 4. Unknown causes.
Views: 373 The Audiopedia
Multiple Alleles (ABO Blood Types) and Punnett Squares
 
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Learn how to set up and solve a genetic problem involving multiple alleles using ABO blood types as an example! This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog Thank you to both Yuemeng Li and Yuyan Cai for Chinese subtitles! We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 603292 Amoeba Sisters
Blood Types Explained | Blood Groups (ABO) and Rh Factor Nursing Transfusions Compatibility
 
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Blood typing made easy with explanation on ABO blood groups and Rh factor for nurses (blood transfusions). There are 8 total blood types from four blood groups (A, B, AB, O). In nursing we transfuse blood, but before we do this we have to collect blood from the patient who will be receiving the blood transfusion. The patient's blood will be typed and crossmatched with a donor. The donor’s blood must be compatible with our patient to prevent a transfusion reaction. To understand blood typing, you have to understand the relationship between antigens and antibodies. What are red blood cell antigens? They are either present or absent on the surface of RBC. All red blood cells have them EXCEPT Type O RBCs. Antigens are proteins that can illicit an immune response when they come into contact with its corresponding antibodies. Therefore, they stimulate antibodies to defend the body. So, when the same red blood cell antigens and antibodies get together it will cause an IMMUNE RESPONSE called agglutination. This is where the RBCs will glue together, hence clump together. Therefore, it is VERY important a person is not transfused with the wrong blood type. Blood Types: Recipient and Donor A blood type: has only A antigens on its surface with B antibodies in the plasma. Type A: donates to A and AB and recipient of O and A B blood type: has only B antigens on its surface with A antibodies in the plasma. Type B: donates to B and AB and recipient of O and B AB blood type: has both A and B antigens on its surface with NO antibodies in it plasma. Type AB: donates to only other ABs but recipient of O, A, B, and AB...known as the "UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT" O blood type: has NO antigens on its surface with A and B antibodies in its plasma. Type O: donates to all types but only recipient of other O....known as the "UNIVERSAL DONOR". Rh factors: either present or absent on the red blood cells surface. If these factors are present on the RBC the patient is Rh POSTIVIE, but if these factors are absent the patient is Rh NEGATIVE. If a patient is Rh positive they can receive either Rh+ or RH- blood. While Rh negative patients can receive only Rh- blood. Quiz Blood Typing: http://www.registerednursern.com/blood-types-nclex-quiz/ Notes: http://www.registerednursern.com/blood-types-nursing-nclex-review/ Blood Transfusion Nursing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4PHCwvkH24 More Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWwTsEG3KPPQx9rWa8AqMIk Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/registerednursern_com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RegisteredNurseRNs Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=registerednursern Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-ultimate-list-of-nursing-medical-supplies-and-items-a-new-nurse-student-nurse-needs-to-buy/ Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/RegisteredNurseRN/videos All of our videos in a playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAhHxt663pU&list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXMveRcN4df0bad3ugEaQnk Popular Playlists: NCLEX Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWtwCDmLHyX2UeHofCIcgo0 Fluid & Electrolytes: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWJSZ9pL8L3Q1dzdlxUzeKv Nursing Skills: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUhd_qQYEbp0Eab3uUKhgKb Nursing School Study Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWBO40qeDmmaMwMHJEWc9Ms Nursing School Tips & Questions" https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVQok-t1X5ZMGgQr3IMBY9M Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUkW_DpJekN_Y0lFkVNFyVF Types of Nursing Specialties: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfW8dRD72gUFa5W7XdfoxArp Healthcare Salary Information: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVN0vmEP59Tx2bIaB_3Qhdh New Nurse Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVTqH6LIoAD2zROuzX9GXZy Nursing Career Help: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVXjptWyvj2sx1k1587B_pj EKG Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU-A9UTclI0tOYrNJ1N5SNt Dosage & Calculations for Nurses: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUYdl0TZQ0Tc2-hLlXlHNXq Diabetes Health Managment: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXtEx17D7zC1efmWIX-iIs9
Views: 83822 RegisteredNurseRN
Blood Grouping Experiment - Amrita University
 
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▶ This video channel is developed by Amrita University's CREATE http://www.amrita.edu/create ▶ Subscribe @ https://www.youtube.com/user/amritacreate http://www.youtube.com/amritavlab ▶ Like us @ https://www.facebook.com/CREATEatAmrita ▶ For more Information @ http://vlab.amrita.edu/index.php?sub=3&brch=69&sim=192&cnt=1 ▶ Amrita Virtual Lab Project website http://vlab.amrita.edu An adult human has about 4--6 litres of blood circulating in the body. Blood consists of several types of cells including White Blood Corpuscles or WBC and Red Blood Corpuscles or RBC floating around in fluid called plasma. There are certain protein molecules called antigens located on the surface of the red blood cells and antibodies which are in the blood plasma. The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of these antigens and antibodies. Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules. According to the ABO blood grouping system discovered by Karl Landsteiner, there are four types of blood groups.
Views: 252453 Amrita Vlab
ABO & Rh Blood Types
 
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blood types, ABO blood types, Rh factor, Agglutinogens A and B, Agglutinins A and B, RBC, serum, agglutination.
Brucella  rapid agglutination test
 
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Brucella rapid agglutination test : Positive -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 5369 Microhub Plus
Punnett Square to determine possible blood types
 
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In this example, the Punnett square is used to determine the possible blood types of the father while the mother is confirmed Type O and all children are confirmed Type O.
Views: 209050 imwondering
What are Blood Types?
 
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Quick Questions explains why, when it comes right down to it, there are really only eight kinds of people in the world. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/artist/52/SciShow Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: https://subbable.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Thanks Tank Tumblr: http://thankstank.tumblr.com Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2261/ http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/Rh_system.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002223.htm http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=21 http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/blood/ http://www.northshore.org/community-events/donating-blood/blood-types/ http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types
Views: 1413989 SciShow
ABO Blood group problem and solution
 
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ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES Definition: Blood group system A series of antigens exhibiting similar serological and physiological characteristics, and inherited according to a specific pattern. Importance of the ABO system: Most important (clinically significant) Blood Group System for transfusion practice Why? This is the only blood group system in which antibodies are consistently, predictably, and naturally present in the serum of people who lack the antigen. Therefore ABO compatibility between donor and recipient is crucial since these strong, naturally occurring A and B antibodies are IgM and can readily activate complement and cause agglutination. If ABO antibodies react with antigens in vivo, result is acute hemolysis and possibly death. Indications for ABO grouping: ABO grouping is required for all of the following individuals: Blood Donors-since it can be life threatening to give the wrong ABO group to the patient. Transfusion recipients-since we need to know the donor blood is ABO compatible. Transplant Candidates and Donors-ABO antigens are found in other tissues as well. Therefore the transplant candidates and donors must be compatible. Prenatal Patients-To determine whether the mothers may have babies who are suffering from ABO-HDN. It is also beneficial to know the ABO group should she start hemorrhaging. Newborns (sometimes) If the baby is demonstrating symptoms of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, the ABO group needs to be determined along with Rh and others. Paternity testing Since the inheritance of the ABO Blood Group System is very specific, this serves as one of the first methods to determine the likelihood that the accused father is the father or not.
Blood Type (ABO and Rh) Made Simple!
 
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This video covers the basics of blood typing, including descriptions of the ABO system and the Rh system!
Views: 279069 Simple Science Answers
ABO Blood Group System - Blood Types & ABO Antigens
 
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Watch 800+ Medical Lectures at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com ─────────────── DR. NAJEEB LECTURES ─────────────── Dr. Najeeb Lectures are the World's Most Popular Medical Lectures. Over 1 Million+ students from 190 countries trust Dr. Najeeb Lectures to Master Medical Sciences. Sign up for a membership plan on our website and access 800+ videos on Basic Medical Sciences & Clinical Medicine. ───────────────── OUR YOUTUBE CHANNEL ───────────────── Here on YouTube, we only upload free sample videos. Most of them are teaser videos (not complete lectures). If you like these videos you can check out our entire video library on our website at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com. ────────────────────── WHY SIGN UP FOR MEMBERSHIP? ────────────────────── ► 800+ Medical Lectures. ► Basic Medical Sciences. ► Clinical Medicine. ► New videos every week in HD. ► Download videos for offline access. ► Fast video playback (0.5x - 2x) ► Watch videos on any device. ► Fanatic customer support. ► Trusted by 1 Million+ students. Learn more at https://www.DrNajeebLectures.com
Views: 156467 Dr. Najeeb Lectures
Coombs Test Made Simple
 
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LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : fb.me/Medsimplified BUY USING AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN A Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT). The direct Coombs test is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia; i.e., a condition of a low count of red blood cells (aka RBCs) caused by immune system lysis or breaking of RBC membranes causing RBC destruction. In certain diseases or conditions, an individual's blood may contain IgG antibodies that can specifically bind to antigens on the RBC surface membrane, and their circulating RBCs can become coated with IgG alloantibodies and/or IgG autoantibodies. Complement proteins may subsequently bind to the bound antibodies and cause RBC destruction.[1] The direct Coombs test is used to detect these antibodies or complement proteins that are bound to the surface of red blood cells; a blood sample is taken and the RBCs are washed (removing the patient's own plasma) and then incubated with anti-human globulin (also known as "Coombs reagent"). If this produces agglutination of RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive, a visual indication that antibodies (and/or complement proteins) are bound to the surface of red blood cells. The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood sample taken from the patient. Then, the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity; that is, RBCs with known reference values from other patient blood samples. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive.[2] The two Coombs tests are based on the fact that anti-human antibodies, which are produced by immunizing non-human species with human serum, will bind to human antibodies, commonly IgG or IgM. Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be fixed onto antigens on the surface of red blood cells (also referred to as RBCs), and in the appropriate test tube conditions this can lead to agglutination of RBCs. The phenomenon of agglutination of RBCs is important here, because the resulting clumping of RBCs can be visualised; when clumping is seen the test is positive and when clumping is not seen the test is negative. Common clinical uses of the Coombs test include the preparation of blood for transfusion in cross-matching, screening for atypical antibodies in the blood plasma of pregnant women as part of antenatal care, and detection of antibodies for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anemias. Examples of alloimmune hemolysis[edit] Hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN or erythroblastosis fetalis) Rh D hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as Rh disease) ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (the indirect Coombs test may only be weakly positive) Anti-Kell hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh c hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh E hemolytic disease of the newborn wikipidea https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coombs_test Watch Again https://youtu.be/4MJA8Wzp2XM Subscribe https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOmrniWfKi-uCD6Oh6fqhgw -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 265339 MEDSimplified
Antigen antibody reaction overview
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page This video focuses on discussing various types of antigen antibody reactions and their clinical importance. The word affinity is used to describe the strength of binding between one antibody binding site and an antigenic determinant (epitope or hapten). The association constant is the mathematical value that is the measure of the strength of binding. Anibody molecules are multivalent and antigens are also often multivalent. This multivalency tends to increase the strength of the interaction, and this really represents the true state of affairs. This overall binding energy that results in the binding of a multivalent antibody with a multivalent antigen is called the functional affinity or the avidity.
Views: 128633 Shomu's Biology
What is HEMAGGLUTINATION? What does HEMAGGLUTINATION mean? HEMAGGLUTINATION meaning
 
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What is HEMAGGLUTINATION? What does HEMAGGLUTINATION mean? HEMAGGLUTINATION meaning - HEMAGGLUTINATION definition - HEMAGGLUTINATION explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. Blood type can be determined by using antibodies that bind to the A or B blood group antigens in a sample of blood. For example, if antibodies that bind the A blood group are added and agglutination occurs, the blood is either type A or type AB. To determine between type A or type AB, antibodies that bind the B group are added and if agglutination does not occur, the blood is type A. If agglutination does not occur with either antibodies that bind to type A or type B antigens, then neither antigen is present on the blood cells, which means the blood is type O. In blood grouping, the patient's serum is tested against RBCs of known blood groups and also the patient's RBCs are tested against known serum types. In this way the patient's blood group is confirmed from both RBCs and serum. A direct Coombs test is also done on the patient's blood sample in case there are any confounding antibodies. Many viruses attach to molecules present on the surface of RBCs. A consequence of this is that at certain concentrations, a viral suspension may bind together (agglutinate) the RBCs, thus preventing them from settling out of suspension. Since agglutination is not linked to infectivity, attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay such as a plaque assay must be used to determine infectivity. By serially diluting a virus suspension into an assay tray (a series of wells of uniform volume) and adding a standard amount of blood cells, an estimation of the number of virus particles can be made. While less accurate than a plaque assay, it is cheaper and quicker (taking just 30 minutes). This assay may be modified to include the addition of an antiserum. By using a standard amount of virus, a standard amount of blood cells, and serially diluting the antiserum, one can identify the concentration of the antiserum (the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination).
Views: 841 The Audiopedia
What Are Blood Types?,blood types,
 
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Blood Types: ABO and Rh:अपने ब्लड ग्रुप के खाने पीने की डाइट जानिए, ब्लड ग्रुप जानकर u will know all about in this video.There are four main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB and O. Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. Each group can be either RhD positive or RhD negative, which means in total there are eight main blood groups. This page covers: Antibodies and antigens. The ABO system. A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system.[1] Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, − or Null denoting RhD status). Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from their own, which is not a problem. What can matter is whether the baby is RhD positive or negative. Mothers who are RhD- and carry a RhD+ baby can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.ABO blood group system[edit] ABO blood group system: diagram showing the carbohydrate chains that determine the ABO blood group Main article: ABO blood group system In human blood there are two antigens and antibodies. The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B. The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B. The antigens are present in the red blood cells and the antibodies in the serum. Regarding the antigen property of the blood all human beings can be classified into 4 groups, those with antigen A (group A), those with antigen B (group B), those with both antigen A and B (group AB) and those with neither antigen (group O). The antibodies present together with the antigens are found as follows : 1. Antigen A with antibody B 2. Antigen B with antibody A 3. Antigen AB has no antibodies 4. Antigen nil (group O) with antibody A and B. There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody (for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and antigen B agglutinates the antibody B) Thus, transfusion can be considered safe as long as the serum of the recipient does not contain antibodies for the blood cell antigens of the donor. The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually immunoglobulin M, abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses.Rh blood group system[edit] Main article: Rh blood group system The Rh system (Rh meaning Rhesus) is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs.[15] Rh disease can develop in these cases.[16] Rh negative blood types are much less common in Asian populations (0.3%) than they are in White populations (15%).[17] The presence or absence of the Rh(D) antigen is signified by the + or − sign, so that, for example, the A− group is ABO type A and does not have the Rh (D) antigen.
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Agglutination of red blood cells
 
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plus other rando cells. Several different types of white bloods cells hovered over and platelets as well. The red blood cells start to stack up as soon as they were extracted and viewed on slide. 1000x magnification using a light compound microscope. Song: Tokimonsta- Sweet Day No copyright infringement intended.
Views: 10102 TonyGT37
Why do blood types matter? - Natalie S. Hodge
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-do-blood-types-matter-natalie-s-hodge It’s often said that despite humanity’s many conflicts, we all bleed the same blood. It’s a nice thought, but not quite accurate. In fact, our blood comes in a few different varieties. Natalie S. Hodge defines the four major blood types and sheds light on why some bloods can mix while others cannot. Lesson by Natalie S. Hodge, animation by Brad Purnell.
Views: 1332952 TED-Ed
RapidVet H Feline Blood Typing Test
 
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Available to veterinarians from http://www.mwianimalhealth.com DMS introduced agglutination-based typing cards more than a decade ago: the first commercially available in-office test for blood typing cats. Very soon, a new test based on immuno-chromatographic techniques will also be available. Either choice will provide you with ease of use and rapid, easy to read results. There are three feline blood types: A, B and AB. Cats have naturally occurring antibodies to antigens not on their red cells. Thus cats with type A blood have antibodies to type B antigens, and cats with type B blood have antibodies to type A antigens. Cats with type AB blood have both A and B antigens on the erythrocyte membrane and do not have naturally occurring antibodies to either type A or B blood. The A type is the most common in cats. The prevalence of type B blood differs by breed. Breeds with a greater than 10% incidence of type B blood include: Abyssinian 16% Japanese Bobtail 16% Birman 18% Persian 14% British SH 36% Scottish Fold 19% Cornish Rex 33% Somali 18% Devon Rex 41% Sphynx 17% Cats with type AB blood are rare. Believe it or not...most cats are not blood typed. What are the risks of not blood typing cats? Transfusion Risks Cats that are transfused, even once, with an incompatible blood type, are at risk for a transfusion reaction. Cats with B erythrocytes exhibit an immediate and catastrophic systemic anaphylactic reaction and a Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction ("HTR") when transfused with type A blood, because of their natural high-titered anti-A antibody Death is extremely likely. Cats with A erythrocytes and natural low-titered anti-B antibody will exhibit only a mild reaction when transfused with type B blood, but the transfused cells will have a shortened life span. The recipient will develop moderate titers of anti-B antibody that will result in a serious reaction if a subsequent incompatible transfusion is administered. In general, you don't know a cat needs a transfusion (to treat a blood disorder or trauma) until it's an emergency. Knowing the patient’s blood type can help prevent an iatrogenic emergency. Mating Risks Serious problems can result from accidental or mismatched mating. A mating of a type B queen with a type A tom will result in their type A kittens being at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis (“NI”), commonly known as “fading kitten syndrome”. The maternal naturally occurring, highly titered anti-A antibody occurs in the colostrum where it can be absorbed by the newborn kittens. The absorbed antibody attacks the kittens’ type A erythrocytes. Although the kittens can seem normal at birth, they develop signs after nursing, fade and die within the first days of life. Determining the blood type of the queen and the tom prior to mating, coupled with appropriate genetic counseling, can minimize the risk of NI. Furthermore, immediate blood type determination of the newborn kittens will alert the client to remove the kittens and to begin surrogate nursing where necessary. The conclusions are clear: • All cats should be blood typed. • No cats should be mated before blood typing. • All kittens resulting from incompatible matings should be blood typed at birth so that surrogate nursing can be started where necessary and the kittens allowed to thrive.
Views: 3409 MWI Animal Health
Understanding Blood Types
 
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This video will discuss the physiology behind the various blood groups. Antigens and antibodies are also discussed in relationship to the different blood groups: type O, A,B, and AB.
Views: 61761 virtualmedstudent
Blood Bank - Mixed Field Agglutination
 
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This video is for instructional uses only and is not to be used for actual medical laboratory testing.
Views: 5755 Patrick Tracy
Determination of  blood group and Rh in tube
 
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Process to determine your blood group in an laboratory
Views: 6410 Karime Guesq
Determination of anti-streptolysin O (ASLO) by agglutination method (LATEX)
 
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The ASLO latex test is a rapid agglutination test on the blade for the qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of anti-streptolysin O in human serum samples. Group A hemolytic streptococcus, Group C hemolytic streptococcus or group G hemolytic streptococcus produces streptolysin, a haemolytic exotoxin to which the human body releases anti-streptolysin antibodies. This detection method uses a suspension of streptolysin-coated latex particles (antigen) that will come into contact with the serum of the patient suspected of being infected (anti-streptolysin O antibodies). If the antibodies are present in the sample, the agglutination reaction occurs and the test is considered positive. After 1-2 weeks of infection with Streptococcus, the anti-streptolysin antibody level can be detected, the maximum level reaching after 3-6 weeks.
Views: 116 DDS Diagnostic
ABO blood groups, antibodies and antigens explained
 
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ABO Blood Types They were discovered in 1900 and 1901 at the University of Vienna by Karl Landsteiner in the process of trying to learn why blood transfusions sometimes cause death and at other times save a patient. In 1930, he belatedly received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of blood types. All humans and many other primates can be typed for the ABO blood group. There are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O. There are two antigens and two antibodies that are mostly responsible for the ABO types. The specific combination of these four components determines an individual's type in most cases. The table below shows the possible permutations of antigens and antibodies with the corresponding ABO type ("yes" indicates the presence of a component and "no" indicates its absence in the blood of an individual). For example, people with type A blood will have the A antigen on the surface of their red cells (as shown in the table below). As a result, anti-A antibodies will not be produced by them because they would cause the destruction of their own blood. However, if B type blood is injected into their systems, anti-B antibodies in their plasma will recognize it as alien and burst or agglutinate the introduced red cells in order to cleanse the blood of alien protein. Individuals with type O blood do not produce ABO antigens. Therefore, their blood normally will not be rejected when it is given to others with different ABO types. As a result, type O people are universal donors for transfusions, but they can receive only type O blood themselves. Those who have type AB blood do not make any ABO antibodies. Their blood does not discriminate against any other ABO type. Consequently, they are universal receivers for transfusions, but their blood will be agglutinated when given to people with every other type because they produce both kinds of antigens. It is easy and inexpensive to determine an individual's ABO type from a few drops of blood. A serum containing anti-A antibodies is mixed with some of the blood. Another serum with anti-B antibodies is mixed with the remaining sample. Whether or not agglutination occurs in either sample indicates the ABO type. It is a simple process of elimination of the possibilities. For instance, if an individual's blood sample is agglutinated by the anti-A antibody, but not the anti-B antibody, it means that the A antigen is present but not the B antigen. Therefore, the blood type is A. Research carried out in Heidelberg, Germany by Ludwik Hirszfeld and Emil von Dungern in 1910 and 1911 showed that the ABO blood types are inherited. We now know that they are determined by genes on chromosome 9, and they do not change as a result of environmental influences during life. An individual's ABO type results from the inheritance of 1 of 3 alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent. The possible outcomes are shown below: Both A and B alleles are dominant over O. As a result, individuals who have an AO genotype will have an A phenotype. People who are type O have OO genotypes. In other words, they inherited a recessive O allele from both parents. The A and B alleles are codominant. Therefore, if an A is inherited from one parent and a B from the other, the phenotype will be AB. Agglutination tests will show that these individuals have the characteristics of both type A and type B blood.
What is the difference between Agglutination and Coagulation
 
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Agglutination.Coagulation refers to a blood clot that forms because of an open wound or from cholesterol within blood vessels. ... It is the binding of antibodies to antigens.Agglutination refers to the clumping of red blood cells that occurs when different blood types are mixed together.The term agglutination is used in the formation of antibody-antigen complexes. The term coagulation is used wherever a clump is formed. ... The main difference between agglutination and coagulation is that agglutination means the small particles coming together whereas coagulation means the formation of a clump. Agglutination vs Coagulation. Agglutination and coagulation are two very technical terms which rarely come up unless you are a medical ...Agglutination is the clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. This term is commonly used in blood grouping .Coagulation refers to a blood clot that forms because of an open wound or from ... Agglutination occurs when an antibody forms in the blood, and bacteria, blood ...
Views: 79 Health Care
Antistreptolysin O (ASO) test detailed explaination
 
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Antistreptolysin O test is explained in detail.
Agglutination Test
 
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Views: 2091 Woo Wei Shan
Blood Typing
 
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Learn how to type blood using the ABO and Rh markers.
Views: 85257 CSMDTube
Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) test- positive
 
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Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-labile streptococcal hemolytic exotoxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of groups C and G Streptococcus bacteria. The "O" in the name stands for oxygen-labile; the other related toxin being oxygen-stable streptolysin-S. The main function of streptolysin O is to cause hemolysis (the breaking open of red blood cells) — in particular, beta-hemolysis. Increased levels of aso titre in the blood could cause damage to the heart and joints. In most cases, penicillin is used to treat patients with increased levels of aso titre. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 22478 Microhub Plus
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Blood Test
 
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CRP blood test is used to measure the amount of c-reactive protein in blood which is related to inflammation in the body. Watch as Dr. Ankush describes about C-Reactive protein test, its normal range and what information can be obtained from the results. CRP Test prices in India: https://www.medifee.com/tests/crp-cost/
Views: 110870 MediFee.com
Hemagglutination assay
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) is a method of quantification for viruses or bacteria by hemagglutination. It is an easy, simple and rapid method which can be applied to large numbers of samples. The hemagglutination assay and its extension, the hemagglutination inhibition assay, were invented in 1941--42 by American virologist George Hirst.[1][2] The hemagglutination assay of a virus, in contrast to other forms of virus quantification such as a plaque assay or 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose, does not give any measure of viral infectivity, because no virus replication is required in this assay. The same may not be true when using HA for bacteria. The detailed conditions depend on the type of virus or bacteria being assayed since certain pH values and ionic strengths can impact the activity of the proteins of interest in a difficult to predict manner. Normally, a virus dilution (e.g. 2-fold from 1:4 to 1:4096) will be applied to an RBC dilution (e.g. 0.1% to 0.7% in steps of 0.2%) for approx. 30 min, often at 4 °C, otherwise viruses with neuraminidase activity will detach the virus from the RBCs. Then the lattice forming parts will be counted and the titer calculated. Virus concentration in virions per millilitre = 107 x HA titer.[3] The titer of a hemagglutination assay is determined by the last viable "lattice" structure found. This is because it is at the point where, if diluted anymore, the amount of Virus particles will be less than that of the RBCs and thus not be able to agglutinate them together. For bacteria, depending on species, a bacterial dilution will be applied to an equal part RBC dilution and then incubated for 30 min to an hour at an optimal growth temperature before being observed.[4]
Views: 57135 Shomu's Biology
Blood groups and Blood compatibility
 
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Follow us at: https://plus.google.com/+tutorvista/ Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-ii/transportation/blood-groups.php Blood Groups A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found, but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. An example of this rare phenomenon is the case of Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant.[9][10] Another more common cause in blood-type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type. Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria Blood compatibility:There are many types of blood; however, the most important ones are ABO and Rhesus factor. While a person is said to be Rh +ve or Rh ve based on the presence or absence of the Rhesus factor respectively, the ABO grouping has four types of blood, namely A, B, AB, and O, depending upon the absence or presence of Anti-A and/or Anti-B antibodies. Thus, a person whose blood group is O Rh ve can donate blood to practically anyone in an emergency and is hence known as a universal donor, whereas someone who is AB Rh +ve can receive blood from anyone and is therefore called a universal recipient. This information is vital in order to prevent adverse reactions due to incompatible blood transfusions. Rh incompatibility occurs during pregnancy when the mother is Rh ve and the fetus is Rh +ve. Usually, the first pregnancy goes unaffected unless mixing of maternal and fetal blood takes place. Subsequent pregnancies can definitely more risky with higher levels of complications in the fetus and even intrauterine death. Please like our facebook page http://www.facebook.com/tutorvista
Views: 94680 TutorVista
कोनसा ब्लड ग्रूप किससे मेच होता हैं।
 
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Blood Groups and CompatibilitiesThere are many blood groups in the human population including ABO, Rh, Kidd, Kell, Duffy, MNS andLewis. The most important of these are ABO and RhD. Transfusion with ABO incompatible blood can lead to severe and potentially fatal transfusion reactions. RhD is highly immunogenic and can lead to red cell haemolysis in certain settings. ABO antigens and antibodiesThe ABO blood group is the most important of all the blood group systems. There are four different ABO blood groups (see Table1), determined by whether or not an individual's red cells carry the A antigen, the B antigen, both A and B antigens or neither.Normal healthy individuals, from early in childhood, make red cell antibodies against A or B antigens that are not expressed on their own cells. These naturally occurring antibodies are mainly IgM immunoglobulins. They attack and rapidly destroy red cellscarrying the corresponding antigen. For example, anti-A attacks red cells of Group A or AB. Anti-B attacks red cells of Group B or AB.Name of Blood GroupAntigens present onthe red cell surfaceABO antibodies presentin the plasmaType Onilanti-A and anti-BType AA antigenanti-BType BB antigenanti-AType ABA and B antigensnilIf ABO incompatible red cells are transfused, red cell haemolysis can occur. For example if group A red cells are infused into a recipient who is group O, the recipient's anti-A antibodies bind to the transfused cells. An ABO incompatible transfusion reaction may result in overwhelming haemostatic and complement activation, resulting in shock, renalfailure & death (for more information please click here). Rhesus D (RhD) antigenThere are more than 40 different kinds of Rh antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is RhD. When RhD is present on the red cell surface, the red cells are called RhD positive. Approximately 80% of the Australian population are RhD positive. The remaining 20% of the population that lack the RhD antigen are called RhD negative.Antibodies to RhD develop only after an individual is exposed to RhD antigens via transfusion, pregnancy or organ transplantation. Anti RhD (or anti-D) antibodies destroy RhD positive red cells and can lead to haemolytic transfusion reactions. This is of particular importance in pregnancy where anti-D antibodiescan cross the placenta from mother to unborn child and lead to haemolytic disease of the newborn.As a general rule, RhD negative individuals should not be transfused with RhD positive red cells, especially RhD negative girls and women of childbearing age. If transfusion of an RhD positive product to RhD negative recipient is unavoidable a haematologist should be consulted and administration of anti-D immunoglobulin considered.Are they compatible?When a transfusion is given, it is preferable for patients to receive blood and plasma of the same ABO and RhD group. However if the required blood type is unavailable, a patient may be givena product of an alternative but compatible group as shown below.Blood CompatibilityPatient TypeCompatible Red Cell TypesCompatible Plasma Types(FFP & Cryoprecipitate)AA, OA, ABBB, OB, ABOOO, A, B, ABABAB, A, B, OABRhD PositiveRhD PositiveRhD NegativeRhD PositiveRhD Negative RhD NegativeRhD NegativeRhD PositiveRhD Negative Note that Group O RhD negative (Onegative) red cells have neither ABO nor RhD antigens on their surface. O RhD negative red cells are issued in emergency situationswhere life saving transfusion is required prior to completion of a crossmatch. Both RCH and RWH blood banks maintain a reserve of 5 emergency O RhD Negative red cells. (Click here for further information on emergency blood release). Group O is often referredto as the universal red cell donor.Group AB individuals have neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in theirplasma. Group AB plasma can therefore be given to patients of any ABO blood group and is often referred to as the universal plasmadonor.Avoiding ABO incompatible transfusionsMost ABO incompatible transfusions occur as a result of improper patient identification at the time of collection of the pre-transfusion sample or administration of the blood product. The pre-transfusion check is carried out at the bedsideby 2 members of clinical staff to ensure the right blood is transfused to the right patient. Positive patient identification prior to blood sample collection and labelling the specimen tube at the bedside is critical for accurate sample collection.Other blood cell antigen-antibody systemsThere are many other antigen systems expressed on red cells, white cells and platelets. Transfusion can cause antibodies to develop in the recipient. Some of these antibodies can cause transfusion reactions or damage the foetus. The purpose of pretransfusion testing(or crossmatching) is to detect potentially harmful antibodies in a patient before transfusion and where possible select red cell units that will not react with them
What is ANTIBODY TITER? What does ANTIBODY TITER mean? ANTIBODY TITER meaning & explanation
 
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What is ANTIBODY TITER? What does ANTIBODY TITER mean? ANTIBODY TITER meaning - ANTIBODY TITER definition - ANTIBODY TITER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An antibody titer is a measurement of how much antibody an organism has produced that recognizes a particular epitope, expressed as the inverse of the greatest dilution (in a serial dilution) that still gives a positive result. ELISA is a common means of determining antibody titers. For example, the indirect Coombs test detects the presence of anti-Rh antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood serum. A patient might be reported to have an "indirect Coombs titer" of 16. This means that the patient's serum gives a positive indirect Coombs test at any dilution down to 1/16 (1 part serum to 15 parts diluent). At greater dilutions the indirect Coombs test is negative. If a few weeks later the same patient had an indirect Coombs titer of 32 (1/32 dilution which is 1 part serum to 31 parts diluent), this would mean that she was making more anti-Rh antibody, since it took a greater dilution to abolish the positive test. Many traditional serological tests such as hemagglutination or complement fixation employ this principle. Such tests can typically be read visually, which makes them fast and cost-effective in a "low-tech" environment. The interpretation of serological titers is guided by reference values that are specific to the antigen or antibody in question; a titer of 1:32 may be below the cut-off for one test but above for another.
Views: 3196 The Audiopedia
widal test (slide & tube) procedure
 
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Widal test is still a common way of diagnosing enteric fever cases in several countries. Although tube agglutination is the standard, some manufacturers have adapted it for slide agglutination. This video shows qualitative as well as quantitative test on a kit that can be used for both slide as well as tube agglutination. Procedure displayed here is as per manufacturer's directions. Procedure of tube agglutination test varies across kits. Kits designed exclusively for tube agglutination have different procedures.
Views: 637058 Sridhar Rao
Agglutination Viewer
 
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Both LED and BULB agglutination Viewer. This is use to provide a magnify view of test tubes contents of any diagnostic test of blood cells.
Views: 654 Arnel Cartoneros
Immuno-Agglutination
 
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Monde Bio s'intéresse à l'étude de la cellule ce qui concerne la structure, les fonctions cellulaires,les types de cellules soit eucaryote ou procaryote, animale et végétale ou bactérie.
Views: 1883 Monde Bio
kidd blood group
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/join -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 3006 Izzati Hanun
Agglutination assay to detect antigens - Multi-Lingual Captions
 
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This short animation demonstrates detection of specific antigens using the agglutination assay. This resource was developed by Cary Engleberg of the University of Michigan. It is part of a larger learning module about laboratory methods for clinical microbiology. The full learning module, editable animation, and video transcript are available at http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/med/microbiology/clinical-microbio-lab/2009. Copyright 2009-2010, Cary Engleberg. This is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Help us caption & translate this video! http://amara.org/v/BWPO/
Views: 161473 openmichigan
What is ASHBY TECHNIQUE? What does ASHBY TECHNIQUE mean? ASHBY TECHNIQUE meaning & explanation
 
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What is ASHBY TECHNIQUE? What does ASHBY TECHNIQUE mean? ASHBY TECHNIQUE meaning - ASHBY TECHNIQUE definition - ASHBY TECHNIQUE explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The Ashby technique is a method for determining the volume and life span of red blood cells in humans, first published by Dr. Winifred Ashby in 1919. The technique involves injection of compatible donor red blood cells of a different blood group into a recipient, followed by blood testing periodically afterwards. Differential agglutination of the red cells is then used to determine the number of remaining donor cells, allowing the survival rate to be determined. It does not involve radioisotope technology, and was the first technique to successfully establish the correct red blood cell life span. In particular, Type O blood is first transfused into Type A or B subjects. In subsequent blood samples, the patient's own A and B blood cells are removed by agglutination with either anti-A or anti-B serum. The number of remaining nonagglutinated Type O cells as a function of time defines the survival rate of blood cells. This technique was used extensively during World War II and shortly after but has more recently been replaced by techniques that label one's own blood, due of the dangers of using donor blood.
Views: 32 The Audiopedia

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