All about blood types - ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON'T memorize that donor / recipient table - watch this video instead! Links to videos mentioned: Mendelian Genetics: Fun with Cats and Peas http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI JOIN THE FUN all over the WEB: SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/user/ThePenguinProf FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ThePenguinProf GOOGLE+: https://plus.google.com/+Penguinprof/posts TWITTER: https://twitter.com/penguinprof WEB: http://www.penguinprof.com/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIDEO DETAILS: Blood Groups: ABO and Rh Blood Group Systems 32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system Discovery of ABO Blood Types ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not Inheritance Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.) ABO Analogy: Donuts and Sprinkles donut = red blood cell A sprinkles = A antigens B sprinkles = B antigens no sprinkles = no antigens (plain donut) What are the antigens chemically? Alleles in the ABO System i = base (plain donut) IA = encodes A antigens IB = encodes B antigens Allele Combinations ii IAIA or IAi IBIB or IBi IAIB Antigens and Antibodies The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system Antibody Structure Antigen + Antibody = agglutination reaction Agglutination = the clumping of particles Latin: agglutinare meaning 'to glue' Mixing of all blood groups and the result KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!! The Rh Antigen Inherited in Mendelian fashion! Medical issue: Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus Good News... Rho(D) Globulin Treatment ("RhoGAM")
Views: 652238 ThePenguinProf
Created by Patrick van Nieuwenhuizen. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/blood-cell-lineages?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/red-blood-cells?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Health & Medicine on Khan Academy: No organ quite symbolizes love like the heart. One reason may be that your heart helps you live, by moving ~5 liters (1.3 gallons) of blood through almost 100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) of blood vessels every single minute! It has to do this all day, everyday, without ever taking a vacation! Now that is true love. Learn about how the heart works, how blood flows through the heart, where the blood goes after it leaves the heart, and what your heart is doing when it makes the sound “Lub Dub.” About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Health & Medicine channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1RAowgA3q8Gl7exSWJuDEw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 243048 khanacademymedicine
This video will guide you on how to test blood group at home with the help of Anti A, B and D (Rh) monoclonal antibody reagents. Blood typing procedure: 1. Mix! First mix the each drop of blood with three different reagents including either of the three different antibodies, A, B or Rh antibodies! 2. Look for agglutination! Then you look at what has happened. ... 3. Figure out the ABO blood group! ... 4. Figure out the Rh blood group! ... 5. Figure out the blood type! Blood is often grouped according to the ABO blood typing system. This method breaks blood types down into four categories: Type A Type B Type AB Type O Rh +ve or -ve Blood typing is also done to tell whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO typing. Normal Results ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: • Anti-A serum, you have type A blood • Anti-B serum, you have type B blood • Both anti-A and anti-B serums, you have type AB blood If your blood cells do not stick together when anti-A and anti-B are added, you have type O blood. RH typing: • If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-Rh serum, you have type Rh-positive blood. • If your blood does not clot when mixed with anti-Rh serum, you have type Rh-negative blood. The last slide blood group is B -ve as you can see clumping/agglutination with Anti-B reagent and no agglutination with rest 2 Considerations There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If they are not detected, you may still have a reaction when receiving certain types of blood, even if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched. A process called cross-matching followed by a Coombs' test can help detect these minor antigens and is routinely done prior to transfusions, except in emergency situations.
Views: 26639 Dr Harish R J
Paul Andersen explains the importance of blood types in blood transfusions. He starts with a brief discussion of blood antigens and antibodies. He describes how the ABO differs from the Rh blood type. He shows you how to solve simple genetic problems using Punnett squares. He then talks about the percentage distribution of the different types and the problems that may result during pregnancy. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 694148 Bozeman Science
This video will guide you on how to test your own blood group at home with the help of the fluids. These are actually anti body to A, B and D (which is Rh factor). So here we will test the blood groups by using our solutions. So I pricked my finger, put 3 drops of blood on slide and then solution was put in form of drop. Then the drops are mixed. Then see for agglutination reaction in form of clumping. Then compare with the pics given in the video and see how different blood groups look like. My blood group is B-ve.
Views: 827662 Dr. Vikram
Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Cellular basis of blood groups including ABO, Rh (Rhesus) and other less known systems, why blood typing is important in blood transfusion. This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/allergy-immunology ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by Vicky Prizmic All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. A blood type refers to the PRESENCE or ABSENCE of a certain marker, or ANTIGEN, on the surface of a person’s red blood cells. For example, in the ABO system, presence of A or B antigen gives type A or B, presence of both antigens gives type AB, while their ABSENCE gives type O. Blood typing is critical for blood transfusion, as there are very SPECIFIC ways in which blood types must be MATCHED between the donor and recipient for a safe transfusion. The rule is simple: patients should NOT be given antigens that their own blood does NOT have. This is because the recipient’s immune system may recognize any “NEW” antigen as “FOREIGN” and develop antibodies to target it for destruction. Depending on the scale of the triggered immune response, the reaction can be serious or fatal. Applying the rule, a type A patient, who is NEGATIVE for B antigen, can only receive blood from type A and type O donors, whose blood does NOT contain B antigen. A type AB patient, having both antigens, can receive blood from anyone, while a type O person, being NEGATIVE for both A and B, can only receive from type O donors, but can give blood to anyone. Another important system is the Rh system, for which, D antigen, or Rh factor, is best known. The blood type for this antigen can be either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. By the same rule, a Rh-negative patient canNOT receive blood from a Rh-positive donor, while the reverse direction is fine. Each of the 4 types of the ABO system can be Rh-positive or negative. This gives 8 possible combinations - the 8 basic blood types everyone knows about. But ABO and Rh are only a FRACTION of the 35 currently known blood group systems, many of which can cause serious reactions during transfusion if mismatched. Altogether there are HUNDREDS of antigens, giving rise to a gigantic number of possible blood types. A fully specified blood type should describe the COMPLETE SET of antigens that a person has. In theory, this list must be determined for both donor and recipient before a transfusion can take place. In reality, however, most people only need to care about their ABO type and Rh factor. The ABO and Rh systems are the most important in blood transfusion for 2 reasons. First, most people can produce ROBUST antibodies against A, B and D antigens, which may NOT be the case for other antigens. In fact, anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually developed during the first year of life. Second, the 8 basic blood types are distributed in comparable proportions that make mismatching a likely event. Most other antigens occur at such frequencies that ONLY a VERY SMALL subset of patients is potentially at risk. For example, if 99.99% of a population is positive for a certain antigen and only 0.01% is negative, only that tiny fraction of negative patients is at risk regarding that antigen. To account for possible INcompatibility OUTSIDE ABO and Rh, an ADDITIONAL test is usually made before transfusion. A blood sample from the patient is mixed with a sample of donor blood and the mixture is examined for CLUMPS. No clumping means a compatible match.
Views: 20661 Alila Medical Media
Learn how to set up and solve a genetic problem involving multiple alleles using ABO blood types as an example! This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSisters Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog Thank you to both Yuemeng Li and Yuyan Cai for Chinese subtitles! We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 680110 Amoeba Sisters
Blood typing made easy with explanation on ABO blood groups and Rh factor for nurses (blood transfusions). There are 8 total blood types from four blood groups (A, B, AB, O). In nursing we transfuse blood, but before we do this we have to collect blood from the patient who will be receiving the blood transfusion. The patient's blood will be typed and crossmatched with a donor. The donor’s blood must be compatible with our patient to prevent a transfusion reaction. To understand blood typing, you have to understand the relationship between antigens and antibodies. What are red blood cell antigens? They are either present or absent on the surface of RBC. All red blood cells have them EXCEPT Type O RBCs. Antigens are proteins that can illicit an immune response when they come into contact with its corresponding antibodies. Therefore, they stimulate antibodies to defend the body. So, when the same red blood cell antigens and antibodies get together it will cause an IMMUNE RESPONSE called agglutination. This is where the RBCs will glue together, hence clump together. Therefore, it is VERY important a person is not transfused with the wrong blood type. Blood Types: Recipient and Donor A blood type: has only A antigens on its surface with B antibodies in the plasma. Type A: donates to A and AB and recipient of O and A B blood type: has only B antigens on its surface with A antibodies in the plasma. Type B: donates to B and AB and recipient of O and B AB blood type: has both A and B antigens on its surface with NO antibodies in it plasma. Type AB: donates to only other ABs but recipient of O, A, B, and AB...known as the "UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT" O blood type: has NO antigens on its surface with A and B antibodies in its plasma. Type O: donates to all types but only recipient of other O....known as the "UNIVERSAL DONOR". Rh factors: either present or absent on the red blood cells surface. If these factors are present on the RBC the patient is Rh POSTIVIE, but if these factors are absent the patient is Rh NEGATIVE. If a patient is Rh positive they can receive either Rh+ or RH- blood. While Rh negative patients can receive only Rh- blood. Quiz Blood Typing: https://www.registerednursern.com/blood-types-nclex-quiz/ Notes: https://www.registerednursern.com/blood-types-nursing-nclex-review/ Blood Transfusion Nursing Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4PHCwvkH24 More Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWwTsEG3KPPQx9rWa8AqMIk Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/registerednursern_com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/RegisteredNurseRNs Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=registerednursern Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-ultimate-list-of-nursing-medical-supplies-and-items-a-new-nurse-student-nurse-needs-to-buy/ Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/RegisteredNurseRN/videos All of our videos in a playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAhHxt663pU&list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXMveRcN4df0bad3ugEaQnk Popular Playlists: NCLEX Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWtwCDmLHyX2UeHofCIcgo0 Fluid & Electrolytes: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWJSZ9pL8L3Q1dzdlxUzeKv Nursing Skills: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUhd_qQYEbp0Eab3uUKhgKb Nursing School Study Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWBO40qeDmmaMwMHJEWc9Ms Nursing School Tips & Questions" https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVQok-t1X5ZMGgQr3IMBY9M Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUkW_DpJekN_Y0lFkVNFyVF Types of Nursing Specialties: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfW8dRD72gUFa5W7XdfoxArp Healthcare Salary Information: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVN0vmEP59Tx2bIaB_3Qhdh New Nurse Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVTqH6LIoAD2zROuzX9GXZy Nursing Career Help: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVXjptWyvj2sx1k1587B_pj EKG Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU-A9UTclI0tOYrNJ1N5SNt Dosage & Calculations for Nurses: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUYdl0TZQ0Tc2-hLlXlHNXq Diabetes Health Managment: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXtEx17D7zC1efmWIX-iIs9
Views: 114300 RegisteredNurseRN
Quick Questions explains why, when it comes right down to it, there are really only eight kinds of people in the world. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/artist/52/SciShow Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: https://subbable.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Thanks Tank Tumblr: http://thankstank.tumblr.com Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2261/ http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/Rh_system.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002223.htm http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=21 http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/blood/ http://www.northshore.org/community-events/donating-blood/blood-types/ http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types
Views: 1431651 SciShow
Video shows what agglutination means. The act of uniting by glue or other tenacious substance; the state of being thus united; adhesion of parts.. Combination in which root words are united with little or no change of form or loss of meaning. See agglutinative.. The clumping together of red blood cells or bacteria, usually in response to a particular antibody.. agglutination pronunciation. How to pronounce, definition by Wiktionary dictionary. agglutination meaning. Powered by MaryTTS
Views: 8597 SDictionary
Agglutination.Coagulation refers to a blood clot that forms because of an open wound or from cholesterol within blood vessels. ... It is the binding of antibodies to antigens.Agglutination refers to the clumping of red blood cells that occurs when different blood types are mixed together.The term agglutination is used in the formation of antibody-antigen complexes. The term coagulation is used wherever a clump is formed. ... The main difference between agglutination and coagulation is that agglutination means the small particles coming together whereas coagulation means the formation of a clump. Agglutination vs Coagulation. Agglutination and coagulation are two very technical terms which rarely come up unless you are a medical ...Agglutination is the clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. This term is commonly used in blood grouping .Coagulation refers to a blood clot that forms because of an open wound or from ... Agglutination occurs when an antibody forms in the blood, and bacteria, blood ...
Views: 307 Health Care
Available to veterinarians from http://www.mwianimalhealth.com DMS introduced agglutination-based typing cards more than a decade ago: the first commercially available in-office test for blood typing cats. Very soon, a new test based on immuno-chromatographic techniques will also be available. Either choice will provide you with ease of use and rapid, easy to read results. There are three feline blood types: A, B and AB. Cats have naturally occurring antibodies to antigens not on their red cells. Thus cats with type A blood have antibodies to type B antigens, and cats with type B blood have antibodies to type A antigens. Cats with type AB blood have both A and B antigens on the erythrocyte membrane and do not have naturally occurring antibodies to either type A or B blood. The A type is the most common in cats. The prevalence of type B blood differs by breed. Breeds with a greater than 10% incidence of type B blood include: Abyssinian 16% Japanese Bobtail 16% Birman 18% Persian 14% British SH 36% Scottish Fold 19% Cornish Rex 33% Somali 18% Devon Rex 41% Sphynx 17% Cats with type AB blood are rare. Believe it or not...most cats are not blood typed. What are the risks of not blood typing cats? Transfusion Risks Cats that are transfused, even once, with an incompatible blood type, are at risk for a transfusion reaction. Cats with B erythrocytes exhibit an immediate and catastrophic systemic anaphylactic reaction and a Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction ("HTR") when transfused with type A blood, because of their natural high-titered anti-A antibody Death is extremely likely. Cats with A erythrocytes and natural low-titered anti-B antibody will exhibit only a mild reaction when transfused with type B blood, but the transfused cells will have a shortened life span. The recipient will develop moderate titers of anti-B antibody that will result in a serious reaction if a subsequent incompatible transfusion is administered. In general, you don't know a cat needs a transfusion (to treat a blood disorder or trauma) until it's an emergency. Knowing the patient’s blood type can help prevent an iatrogenic emergency. Mating Risks Serious problems can result from accidental or mismatched mating. A mating of a type B queen with a type A tom will result in their type A kittens being at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis (“NI”), commonly known as “fading kitten syndrome”. The maternal naturally occurring, highly titered anti-A antibody occurs in the colostrum where it can be absorbed by the newborn kittens. The absorbed antibody attacks the kittens’ type A erythrocytes. Although the kittens can seem normal at birth, they develop signs after nursing, fade and die within the first days of life. Determining the blood type of the queen and the tom prior to mating, coupled with appropriate genetic counseling, can minimize the risk of NI. Furthermore, immediate blood type determination of the newborn kittens will alert the client to remove the kittens and to begin surrogate nursing where necessary. The conclusions are clear: • All cats should be blood typed. • No cats should be mated before blood typing. • All kittens resulting from incompatible matings should be blood typed at birth so that surrogate nursing can be started where necessary and the kittens allowed to thrive.
Views: 3659 MWI Animal Health
For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page This video focuses on discussing various types of antigen antibody reactions and their clinical importance. The word affinity is used to describe the strength of binding between one antibody binding site and an antigenic determinant (epitope or hapten). The association constant is the mathematical value that is the measure of the strength of binding. Anibody molecules are multivalent and antigens are also often multivalent. This multivalency tends to increase the strength of the interaction, and this really represents the true state of affairs. This overall binding energy that results in the binding of a multivalent antibody with a multivalent antigen is called the functional affinity or the avidity.
Views: 138759 Shomu's Biology
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-do-blood-types-matter-natalie-s-hodge It’s often said that despite humanity’s many conflicts, we all bleed the same blood. It’s a nice thought, but not quite accurate. In fact, our blood comes in a few different varieties. Natalie S. Hodge defines the four major blood types and sheds light on why some bloods can mix while others cannot. Lesson by Natalie S. Hodge, animation by Brad Purnell.
Views: 1416698 TED-Ed
SSC CGL Biology Blood Group, Antigens and Antibodies - complete course on biology for SSC CGL. This lesson caters to the current syllabus of SSC CGL in particular. This lesson will provide us with the complete notes on Biology for the upcoming SSC CGL Exam and other competitive exams. Biology always plays a vital role in the competitive exams. Around 6 to 7 questions are asked from this section. The lesson has been prepared in a way that it covers most minute of the details in a very simple way without much exaggeration. You can find the entire course here: https://goo.gl/45vznf Download the Unacademy Learning App from the Google Play Store here:- https://goo.gl/02OhYI Discuss the course with fellow aspirants here:- https://goo.gl/b3q6ZX
Views: 28815 Unacademy
What is HEMAGGLUTINATION? What does HEMAGGLUTINATION mean? HEMAGGLUTINATION meaning - HEMAGGLUTINATION definition - HEMAGGLUTINATION explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two common uses in the laboratory: blood typing and the quantification of virus dilutions in a haemagglutination assay. Blood type can be determined by using antibodies that bind to the A or B blood group antigens in a sample of blood. For example, if antibodies that bind the A blood group are added and agglutination occurs, the blood is either type A or type AB. To determine between type A or type AB, antibodies that bind the B group are added and if agglutination does not occur, the blood is type A. If agglutination does not occur with either antibodies that bind to type A or type B antigens, then neither antigen is present on the blood cells, which means the blood is type O. In blood grouping, the patient's serum is tested against RBCs of known blood groups and also the patient's RBCs are tested against known serum types. In this way the patient's blood group is confirmed from both RBCs and serum. A direct Coombs test is also done on the patient's blood sample in case there are any confounding antibodies. Many viruses attach to molecules present on the surface of RBCs. A consequence of this is that at certain concentrations, a viral suspension may bind together (agglutinate) the RBCs, thus preventing them from settling out of suspension. Since agglutination is not linked to infectivity, attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay such as a plaque assay must be used to determine infectivity. By serially diluting a virus suspension into an assay tray (a series of wells of uniform volume) and adding a standard amount of blood cells, an estimation of the number of virus particles can be made. While less accurate than a plaque assay, it is cheaper and quicker (taking just 30 minutes). This assay may be modified to include the addition of an antiserum. By using a standard amount of virus, a standard amount of blood cells, and serially diluting the antiserum, one can identify the concentration of the antiserum (the greatest dilution which inhibits hemagglutination).
Views: 1317 The Audiopedia
Blood Types: ABO and Rh:अपने ब्लड ग्रुप के खाने पीने की डाइट जानिए, ब्लड ग्रुप जानकर u will know all about in this video.There are four main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB and O. Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents. Each group can be either RhD positive or RhD negative, which means in total there are eight main blood groups. This page covers: Antibodies and antigens. The ABO system. A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or an alternative version of a gene) and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, − or Null denoting RhD status). Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from their own, which is not a problem. What can matter is whether the baby is RhD positive or negative. Mothers who are RhD- and carry a RhD+ baby can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.ABO blood group system ABO blood group system: diagram showing the carbohydrate chains that determine the ABO blood group Main article: ABO blood group system In human blood there are two antigens and antibodies. The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B. The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B. The antigens are present in the red blood cells and the antibodies in the serum. Regarding the antigen property of the blood all human beings can be classified into 4 groups, those with antigen A (group A), those with antigen B (group B), those with both antigen A and B (group AB) and those with neither antigen (group O). The antibodies present together with the antigens are found as follows : 1. Antigen A with antibody B 2. Antigen B with antibody A 3. Antigen AB has no antibodies 4. Antigen nil (group O) with antibody A and B. There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody (for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and antigen B agglutinates the antibody B) Thus, transfusion can be considered safe as long as the serum of the recipient does not contain antibodies for the blood cell antigens of the donor. The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually immunoglobulin M, abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses.Rh blood group system Main article: Rh blood group system The Rh system (Rh meaning Rhesus) is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs. Rh disease can develop in these cases. Rh negative blood types are much less common in Asian populations (0.3%) than they are in White populations (15%). The presence or absence of the Rh(D) antigen is signified by the + or − sign, so that, for example, the A− group is ABO type A and does not have the Rh (D) antigen.
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Follow us at: https://plus.google.com/+tutorvista/ Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-ii/transportation/blood-groups.php Blood Groups A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found, but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. An example of this rare phenomenon is the case of Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant. Another more common cause in blood-type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type. Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria Blood compatibility:There are many types of blood; however, the most important ones are ABO and Rhesus factor. While a person is said to be Rh +ve or Rh ve based on the presence or absence of the Rhesus factor respectively, the ABO grouping has four types of blood, namely A, B, AB, and O, depending upon the absence or presence of Anti-A and/or Anti-B antibodies. Thus, a person whose blood group is O Rh ve can donate blood to practically anyone in an emergency and is hence known as a universal donor, whereas someone who is AB Rh +ve can receive blood from anyone and is therefore called a universal recipient. This information is vital in order to prevent adverse reactions due to incompatible blood transfusions. Rh incompatibility occurs during pregnancy when the mother is Rh ve and the fetus is Rh +ve. Usually, the first pregnancy goes unaffected unless mixing of maternal and fetal blood takes place. Subsequent pregnancies can definitely more risky with higher levels of complications in the fetus and even intrauterine death. Please like our facebook page http://www.facebook.com/tutorvista
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LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : fb.me/Medsimplified BUY USING AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN A Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT). The direct Coombs test is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia; i.e., a condition of a low count of red blood cells (aka RBCs) caused by immune system lysis or breaking of RBC membranes causing RBC destruction. In certain diseases or conditions, an individual's blood may contain IgG antibodies that can specifically bind to antigens on the RBC surface membrane, and their circulating RBCs can become coated with IgG alloantibodies and/or IgG autoantibodies. Complement proteins may subsequently bind to the bound antibodies and cause RBC destruction. The direct Coombs test is used to detect these antibodies or complement proteins that are bound to the surface of red blood cells; a blood sample is taken and the RBCs are washed (removing the patient's own plasma) and then incubated with anti-human globulin (also known as "Coombs reagent"). If this produces agglutination of RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive, a visual indication that antibodies (and/or complement proteins) are bound to the surface of red blood cells. The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood sample taken from the patient. Then, the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity; that is, RBCs with known reference values from other patient blood samples. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive. The two Coombs tests are based on the fact that anti-human antibodies, which are produced by immunizing non-human species with human serum, will bind to human antibodies, commonly IgG or IgM. Animal anti-human antibodies will also bind to human antibodies that may be fixed onto antigens on the surface of red blood cells (also referred to as RBCs), and in the appropriate test tube conditions this can lead to agglutination of RBCs. The phenomenon of agglutination of RBCs is important here, because the resulting clumping of RBCs can be visualised; when clumping is seen the test is positive and when clumping is not seen the test is negative. Common clinical uses of the Coombs test include the preparation of blood for transfusion in cross-matching, screening for atypical antibodies in the blood plasma of pregnant women as part of antenatal care, and detection of antibodies for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anemias. Examples of alloimmune hemolysis Hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN or erythroblastosis fetalis) Rh D hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as Rh disease) ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (the indirect Coombs test may only be weakly positive) Anti-Kell hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh c hemolytic disease of the newborn Rh E hemolytic disease of the newborn wikipidea https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coombs_test Watch Again https://youtu.be/4MJA8Wzp2XM Subscribe https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOmrniWfKi-uCD6Oh6fqhgw -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
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plus other rando cells. Several different types of white bloods cells hovered over and platelets as well. The red blood cells start to stack up as soon as they were extracted and viewed on slide. 1000x magnification using a light compound microscope. Song: Tokimonsta- Sweet Day No copyright infringement intended.
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page This video discusses about properties of antigens and antibodies and their interaction pattern and also the importance of antigen antibody complex in detecting diseases by immunoassay. An immune complex is formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen. The bound antigen and antibody act as a specific epitope, and is referred to as a singular immune complex. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes can be subject to any of a number of responses, including complement deposition, opsonization, phagocytosis, or processing by proteases. Red blood cells carrying CR1-receptors on their surface may bind C3b-decorated immune complexes and transport them to phagocytes, mostly in liver and spleen, and return to the general circulation. Immune complexes may themselves cause disease when they are deposited in organs, e.g. in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification, called Type III hypersensitivity. Immune complex deposition is a prominent feature of several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and Sjögren's syndrome.
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Widal test is still a common way of diagnosing enteric fever cases in several countries. Although tube agglutination is the standard, some manufacturers have adapted it for slide agglutination. This video shows qualitative as well as quantitative test on a kit that can be used for both slide as well as tube agglutination. Procedure displayed here is as per manufacturer's directions. Procedure of tube agglutination test varies across kits. Kits designed exclusively for tube agglutination have different procedures.
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UPDATE: Yes I know, this was a bad video. I didn't do it properly because I didn't collect the blood correctly. The blood came out too quickly instead of being a drop which you gently squeeze out like you're supposed to. I was too busy filming this video! Last year I managed to do the blood test again EXCEPT I did it properly since I wasn't distracted with filming a video. The 3rd circle agglutinated properly this time meaning that I was O positive! Please don't take this video too seriously, I did a really bad job haha :) I was curious about what blood type I am.... I recently ordered an Eldon Home Blood Type Testing kit! They cost around $10. Make sure you search around the web though. I found a website where it was based in the USA and only shipped in North America. International shipping costed $50+! Luckily I found another company which was based in the UK so shipping only costed $5 :) I wasn't doing the blood test as well I as I could've been doing because I was filming. Please excuse the blood splattering outside the circles and the bad technique. I am terrible at multitasking... I found out that I was O but the Rhesus factor test was inconclusive. The circle was sort of agglutinating but I couldn't really tell. The booklet said that any weak agglutinate being produced must be retested. So I am either O negative or O positive. On the other hand, my sister also did the blood test. Luckily, her blood produced strong agglutinates when mixed with the antibodies on the card.
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The ASLO latex test is a rapid agglutination test on the blade for the qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of anti-streptolysin O in human serum samples. Group A hemolytic streptococcus, Group C hemolytic streptococcus or group G hemolytic streptococcus produces streptolysin, a haemolytic exotoxin to which the human body releases anti-streptolysin antibodies. This detection method uses a suspension of streptolysin-coated latex particles (antigen) that will come into contact with the serum of the patient suspected of being infected (anti-streptolysin O antibodies). If the antibodies are present in the sample, the agglutination reaction occurs and the test is considered positive. After 1-2 weeks of infection with Streptococcus, the anti-streptolysin antibody level can be detected, the maximum level reaching after 3-6 weeks.
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You can support the work of campbellteaching, at no cost whatsoever to yourself, if you use the link below as your bookmark to access Amazon. Thank you. If in the US use this link http://goo.gl/mDMfj5 If in the UK use this link http://goo.gl/j0htQ5 The second common blood grouping uses the Rhesus factor (Rh factor), so called because it was first discovered in Rhesus monkeys. Rhesus factor is in addition to the ABO groups. This factor is simply present or absent on the redcells. Unlike the ABO system there are no naturally occurring antibodies in the plasma, but antibodies may develop in a Rhesus negative individual if they are exposed to Rhesus positive blood. Recipients who are Rhesus negative should therefore only receive Rhesus negative blood. If they were to be given Rhesus positive blood there would beno reaction on the first occasion, but the introduction of Rhesus antigens would cause the recipient to produce Rhesus factor antibodies. This means if the patient were to be given Rhesus positive blood on a second occasion, the new Rhesus factor antibodies would bind to the donated Rhesus factor antigen, leading to agglutination. Therefore Rhesus negative recipients may only receive Rhesus negative blood. However, in theory, Rhesus positive patients may receive Rhesus negative blood, as the red cells contain no antigens. Once the Rhesus factor is taken into account it means that O negative is the universal donor and AB positive the universal recipient. The Rhesus factor is sometimes referred to as the D factor. This is because the most active component of the Rhesus factor antigen is termed the D factor.
Views: 34215 Dr. John Campbell
ब्लड ग्रूप क्या होते हैं? ब्लड ग्रूप जानने के क्या फायदे हैं? किन कारणों से डॉक्टर आप को ब्लड ग्रूप की जानकारी पूछ सकते हैं? पता कीजिए डॉ. अंकुश जी से ब्लड ग्रूप टेस्ट के बारे में । Blood Group Test prices in Hindi: https://www.medifee.com/tests/blood-group-test-cost/
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) is a method of quantification for viruses or bacteria by hemagglutination. It is an easy, simple and rapid method which can be applied to large numbers of samples. The hemagglutination assay and its extension, the hemagglutination inhibition assay, were invented in 1941--42 by American virologist George Hirst. The hemagglutination assay of a virus, in contrast to other forms of virus quantification such as a plaque assay or 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose, does not give any measure of viral infectivity, because no virus replication is required in this assay. The same may not be true when using HA for bacteria. The detailed conditions depend on the type of virus or bacteria being assayed since certain pH values and ionic strengths can impact the activity of the proteins of interest in a difficult to predict manner. Normally, a virus dilution (e.g. 2-fold from 1:4 to 1:4096) will be applied to an RBC dilution (e.g. 0.1% to 0.7% in steps of 0.2%) for approx. 30 min, often at 4 °C, otherwise viruses with neuraminidase activity will detach the virus from the RBCs. Then the lattice forming parts will be counted and the titer calculated. Virus concentration in virions per millilitre = 107 x HA titer. The titer of a hemagglutination assay is determined by the last viable "lattice" structure found. This is because it is at the point where, if diluted anymore, the amount of Virus particles will be less than that of the RBCs and thus not be able to agglutinate them together. For bacteria, depending on species, a bacterial dilution will be applied to an equal part RBC dilution and then incubated for 30 min to an hour at an optimal growth temperature before being observed.
Views: 59941 Shomu's Biology
For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Source of all articles published in description is Wikipedia. Thanks to original content developers. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page This video tutorial talks about different immunological assays and antibody test methods and their importance in clinical biology. It also explains different features of antigen antibody reactions and their role in identifying diseases.
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CRP blood test is used to measure the amount of c-reactive protein in blood which is related to inflammation in the body. Watch as Dr. Ankush describes about C-Reactive protein test, its normal range and what information can be obtained from the results. CRP Test prices in India: https://www.medifee.com/tests/crp-cost/
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ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES Definition: Blood group system A series of antigens exhibiting similar serological and physiological characteristics, and inherited according to a specific pattern. Importance of the ABO system: Most important (clinically significant) Blood Group System for transfusion practice Why? This is the only blood group system in which antibodies are consistently, predictably, and naturally present in the serum of people who lack the antigen. Therefore ABO compatibility between donor and recipient is crucial since these strong, naturally occurring A and B antibodies are IgM and can readily activate complement and cause agglutination. If ABO antibodies react with antigens in vivo, result is acute hemolysis and possibly death. Indications for ABO grouping: ABO grouping is required for all of the following individuals: Blood Donors-since it can be life threatening to give the wrong ABO group to the patient. Transfusion recipients-since we need to know the donor blood is ABO compatible. Transplant Candidates and Donors-ABO antigens are found in other tissues as well. Therefore the transplant candidates and donors must be compatible. Prenatal Patients-To determine whether the mothers may have babies who are suffering from ABO-HDN. It is also beneficial to know the ABO group should she start hemorrhaging. Newborns (sometimes) If the baby is demonstrating symptoms of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, the ABO group needs to be determined along with Rh and others. Paternity testing Since the inheritance of the ABO Blood Group System is very specific, this serves as one of the first methods to determine the likelihood that the accused father is the father or not.
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WIDAL test english version is also available.. 👇 https://youtu.be/TSby1UZdZmE 👉 If you have any questions or Topics to learn from me then Comment in Below section. ↪ Official Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/ravismicrobiolgy ↪ Official Instagram : https://www.instagram.com/ravismicrobiology ↪ Official Twitter : https://www.twitter.com/@RMicrobiology
Views: 44363 Ravi's Microbiology