Search results “Elliptical curve cryptography implementation plans”
Blockchain tutorial 11: Elliptic Curve key pair generation
This is part 11 of the Blockchain tutorial explaining how the generate a public private key using Elliptic Curve. In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understand blockchain. Bitcoin released as open source software in 2009 is a cryptocurrency invented by Satoshi Nakamoto (unidentified person or group of persons). After the introduction of Bitcoin many Bitcoin alternatives were created. These alternate cryptocurrencies are called Altcoins (Litecoin, Dodgecoin etc). Bitcoin's underlying technology is called Blockchain. The Blockchain is a distributed decentralized incorruptible database (ledger) that records blocks of digital information. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block. Soon people realises that there many other use cases where the Blockchain technology can be applied and not just as a cryptocurrency application. New Blockchain platforms were created based on the Blockchain technology, one of which is called Ethereum. Ethereum focuses on running programming code, called smart contracts, on any decentralized application. Using the new Blockchain platforms, Blockchain technology can be used in supply chain management, healthcare, real estate, identity management, voting, internet of things, etcetera, just to name a few. Today there is a growing interest in Blockchain not only in the financial sector but also in other sectors. Explaining how Blockchain works is not easy and for many the Blockchain technology remains an elusive concept. This video series tries to explain Blockchain to a large audience but from the bottom up. Keywords often used in Blockchain conversation will be explained. Each Blockchain video is short and to the point. It is recommended to watch each video sequentially as I may refer to certain Blockchain topics explained earlier. Check out all my other Blockchain tutorial videos https://goo.gl/aMTFHU Subscribe to my YouTube channel https://goo.gl/61NFzK The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at: http://www.mobilefish.com/developer/blockchain/blockchain_quickguide_tutorial.html The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at: http://www.mobilefish.com/developer/blockchain/blockchain_quickguide_tutorial.html The python script used in the video: https://www.mobilefish.com/download/cryptocurrency/bitcoin_ec_key_generation.py.txt Cryptocurrency address generator and validator: https://www.mobilefish.com/services/cryptocurrency/cryptocurrency.html Desmos graph: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/kkj2efqk5x James D'Angelo, Bitcoin 101 Elliptic Curve Cryptography Part 4: https://youtu.be/iB3HcPgm_FI #mobilefish #blockchain #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #ethereum
Views: 19051 Mobilefish.com
RustConf 2017 - Fast, Safe, Pure-Rust Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Fast, Safe, Pure-Rust Elliptic Curve Cryptography by Isis Lovecruft & Henry De Valence This talk discusses the design and implementation of curve25519-dalek, a pure-Rust implementation of operations on the elliptic curve known as Curve25519. We will discuss the goals of the library and give a brief overview of the implementation strategy. We will also discuss features of the Rust language that allow us to achieve competitive performance without sacrificing safety or readability, and future features that could allow us to achieve more safety and more performance. Finally, we will discuss how -dalek makes it easy to implement complex cryptographic primitives, such as zero-knowledge proofs.
Views: 4466 Rust
Elliptic Curve Point Addition
This was for the MAO Math Presentation Competition. I won! :D
Views: 32649 Riverninj4
Securing today’s IoT
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an everyday reality. From smart cities, industries, homes and more – today’s IoT is all around us. Security is critical to the growing market for IoT-enabled devices as there are so many ways to potentially cause damage in the IoT. NXP’s latest A71CH “Plug & Trust” secure element simplifies the implementation of strong security mechanisms in today’s IoT devices, so you can securely connect to clouds, infrastructures, and services without writing security codes, managing or exposing keys. Learn how you can easily strengthen your security at www.nxp.com/A71CH
Views: 2919 NXP Semiconductors
The ECC Message
The Ettihad Cultural Center's first year as an official cultural center isn't complete without commemorating all the efforts that have been put in over the past 3 years.
What Are Bulletproofs? w/ Jonathan Bootle (zk-SNARKS, Monero, Zcash, and PIVX)
In this video, we sit down with Jon Bootle, who invented a faster and more efficient form of zero-knowledge proofs (one which does not require a trusted setup). Privacy coins from Monero to PIVX have voiced plans to integrate the new technology, which is a major security and speed upgrade. ➜ Coin Crunch: https://coincrunch.io ➜ Coin Crunch Mastermind Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/coincrunch/ ➜ Our telegram channel: https://t.me/coincrunch ➜ Coin Crunch Announcements Channel - https://t.me/coincrunchannoucements ➜ The Crunch Podcast: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-crunch/id1363950785 Based on a 2016 improvement in the space efficiency of discrete-log based zero knowledge proofs from Jonathan Bootle and others, Bulletproofs are an even more space efficient form of zero-knowledge proof. Importantly for our purposes, these proofs also have native support for committed values such as Pedersen commitments and public keys. This lets us implement things such as rangeproofs in this general zero-knowledge framework without implementing the heavy machinery of elliptic curve arithmetic in zero knowledge. Stronger. To limit the size of transactions, our old rangeproofs constrained outputs to be in a range of size 2^32. This limited outputs to about 43 BTC, though this could be increased by reducing the granularity of proofs from 1 satoshi to 10 or 100, or by increasing the minimum value from zero. These adjustments were possible but used explicit amounts, limiting the privacy provided by the system. These 32-bit rangeproofs were approximately 2.5 KiB in size. With Adam’s optimization they would have been 2 KiB in size. With Bulletproofs, they would have been 610 bytes. With such small sizes, we might as well double the range to 64 bits, eliminating the need for any non-private adjustments. This would increase the paltry 610 bytes to 1220, right? Nope. In fact, a 64-bit Bulletproof rangeproof is only 674 bytes. Smaller. The reason that we can double the range size while adding only 64 bytes to the proof size is that they grow logarithmically in size. This is done using a variant of a the inner product argument from the Bootle et al 2016 paper. (Jonathan Bootle also helped Benedikt and Dan develop Bulletproofs). Specifically, the logarithmically-sized inner product argument described in that paper was reduced even further in Bulletproofs from 6log(N) curvepoints to 2log(N). This same trick allows aggregation of multiple rangeproofs within a transaction into one, again with only a small size increase. An aggregate of two rangeproofs would be 738 bytes, of four would be 802, and of eight would be 866. Eight 64-bit classical rangeproofs would be over 40000 bytes! Faster. This space savings is great, but our initial analysis of the technique showed that verification would be slower than the old rangeproofs. It appeared that verification of a single 64-bit proof would require more than 200 scalar-point multiplications, each one an onerous 50-microsecond affair, while the old rangeproofs needed only 128. But after further analysis, we were able to combine many of the multiplications, reducing the total number to only 147. More importantly, we realized that unlike the old rangeproofs, none of these multiplications depended on each other, and we could do them all in one big batch. As part of our work on aggregate signatures, we knew how to batch-multiply very quickly. Pieter Wuille, Greg Maxwell, Jonas Nick, Peter Dettman and myself had spent several months on this problem and had reduced the speed of 147 multiplications to only 15.5 microseconds each, getting the total verification time of a Bulletproof down to 2.3 ms, vs 5.8 ms for the old proofs. This is already more than a doubling in speed, but because our batch-multiplication gets faster the more points you give it, the performance numbers for aggregates are even more impressive. An aggregate of eight 64-bit Bulletproofs can be verified in only 11.5 ms, vs 46.8 ms for the old proofs, more than quadrupling the speed. But it gets even better. Bulletproofs support an extremely efficient form of batch verification. Of the 147 multiplications we need to do, 130 of them use the same points in every Bulletproof, which means that during batch validation, these 130 multiplications can be combined, leaving only 17 new ones. In fact, this marginal cost increases only logarithmically: for aggregates of 2 ranges, each additional proof takes 19 extra points, and for aggregates of 4 each proof takes 21. ------------------------------------------ Sources: https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1066 https://blockstream.com/2018/02/21/bulletproofs-faster-rangeproofs-and-much-more.html http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/J.Bootle/ https://pivx.org https://getmonero.org
Views: 1499 Coin Crunch
Post-Quantum Cryptography with Nick Sullivan and Adam Langley: GCPPodcast 123
Original post: https://www.gcppodcast.com/post/episode-123-post-quantum-cryptography-with-nick-sullivan-and-adam-langley/ Nick Sullivan, and Adam Langley join Melanie and Mark to provide a pragmatic view on post-quantum cryptography and what it means to research security for the potential of quantum computing. Post-quantum cryptography is about developing algorithms that are resistant to quantum computers in conjunction with “classical” computers. It’s about looking at the full picture of potential threats and planning on how to address them using a diversity of types of mathematics in the research. Adam and Nick help clarify the different terminology and techniques that are applied in the research and give a practical understanding of what to expect from a security perspective.
Views: 1154 Google Cloud Platform
Rational Points on Elliptic Curves
Learn more at: http://www.springer.com/978-3-319-18587-3. Written by leading experts in the field. Explains the role of Frey curves and Galois representations in Andrew Wiles' breakthrough proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Includes many new exercises.
Views: 218 SpringerVideos
Post-Quantum Cryptography in IoT world - Dr. Reza Azarderakhsh, PQSecure Technologies
It has been widely accepted that quantum computer attacks on today’s security are expected to become a reality within the next decade. We believe it is prudent to plan ahead for future needs as it normally takes many years to change cryptosystem deployments. I will talk about quantum-safe solutions, including post-quantum primitives, encryption algorithms and key exchange mechanisms, that we are currently involved and are feasible to be implemented in small and resource-constrained devices. I mainly will discuss the efficiency of implementing isogeny-based cryptography, which are based on hardness of finding maps between elliptic curves, on various Arm platforms and provide the timing and performance results. Dr. Reza Azarderakhsh is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering. This talk was presented at the Arm Research Summit, 17-19 September 2018. Summit 2019 will be taking place in Austin, TX. Visit arm.com/summit for more details!
Views: 128 Arm Research
Crypto Curve ICO - Too Ambitious? New WAN DEX Platform
Join the Coin Crunch Community - https://coincrunch.io/join Crypto Curve is a new Dapp being built on the Wanchain ecosystem. It's also one of the first startups to go through the newly established WANlab incubator program. They are looking to build a multi-functional tech platform that allows for complete control over new investments and existing. This includes selling via a DEX, quick liquidation functionality and complete onboarding for new ICOs. That being said I had a few big questions about the tech and would love to hear from the team about how they plan on implementing some of these ideas.
Views: 2418 Coin Crunch
16. Side-Channel Attacks
MIT 6.858 Computer Systems Security, Fall 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-858F14 Instructor: Nickolai Zeldovich In this lecture, Professor Zeldovich discusses side-channel attacks, specifically timing attacks. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 13198 MIT OpenCourseWare
Dorothie & Martin Hellman: "Peace, True Love.... and Cryptography" | Talks at Google
Turing Award winner Martin Hellman, along with his wife Dorothie, discuss their book, “A New Map for Relationships: Creating True Love at Home & Peace on the Planet,” and how they went from being madly in love at first, to heading for divorce, then madly in love again--explaining how the same lessons they had to learn in their marriage can help avert worldwide catastrophes such as global warming and nuclear war. Former US Ambassador to Afghanistan Karl Eikenberry has referred to the Hellman’s work as, “the most thoughtful, unique, and fascinating book I have ever read on personal and international diplomacy.” Stories from Marty’s work in cryptography help illustrate ethical dilemmas and the importance of “getting curious, not furious.” “A New Map” can be downloaded for free at: https://anewmap.com/ Dorothie Hellman worked as a CPA at Touche Ross, later becoming a full-time volunteer and VP for Financial Support at the Beyond War Foundation from 1982-87. Since then, she has devoted her life to studying how to improve the human condition. Martin Hellman is best known for his invention, with Diffie and Merkle, of public key cryptography, to enable secure Internet transactions. He currently works on reducing existential risks posed by technology, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons. He is Professor Emeritus of EE at Stanford University, and was awarded the Turing Award in 2015.
Views: 1677 Talks at Google
Daniel J. Bernstein - How to manipulate standards - project bullrun
Daniel J. Bernstein - How to manipulate standards - project bullrun Daniel Julius Bernstein (sometimes known simply as djb; born October 29, 1971) is a German-American[2] mathematician, cryptologist, programmer, and professor of mathematics and computer science at the Eindhoven University of Technology and research professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His computer software programs qmail, publicfile, and djbdns were released as license-free software. This was used by some of the people that were offended by his criticism to stop the distribution of his software, so that Linux distributions such as Debian which used qmail internally did not distribute qmail. OpenBSD a security focused operating system had the majority of its security exploits as a result of its decision to stay with Sendmail and BIND and removed qmail and djbdns from its ports as part of the license dispute. This issue was resolved when Bernstein released the source code of his projects into public domain software in 2007. Bernstein designed his Salsa20 stream cipher in 2005 and submitted to eSTREAM for review, another variant, ChaCha20, is published by him in 2008. He also designed Curve25519, a public key cryptography scheme based on elliptic curve in 2005, and worked as the lead researcher on its Ed25519 implementation of EdDSA. Without any adoptions at first, after nearly a decade later, Edward Snowden's disclosure about the mass surveillance by the National Security Agency, especially a backdoor inside Dual_EC_DRBG, suspicions of the NIST's P curve constants[3] led to concerns[4] that the NSA had chosen values that gave them an advantage in factoring[5] public keys.[6] Since then Curve25519 and EdDSA has attracted much attention and became the de facto replacement of NIST P curve. Google has also selected ChaCha20 along with Bernstein's Poly1305 message authentication code as a replacement for RC4 in TLS, which is used for Internet security.[7] Many protocols based on his works have now standardized and used in a variety of applications, such as Apple iOS,[8] Linux kernel,[9] OpenSSH,[10][11] and Tor.[12]
Views: 492 Thomas D
Asymmetric Algorithms - CompTIA Security+ SY0-501 - 6.2
Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0501 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/501cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - Asymmetric encryption has enabled the exchange of symmetric keys, encryption of data, digital signatures, and other significant security features. In this video, you’ll learn about these asymmetric algorithms and their use. - - - - - Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 17831 Professor Messer
Playboy Plans To Implement Cryptocurrency Wallet
http://bitcoinbrandon.com Crypto Talk with Brandon Ivey. We talk Crypto, Politics, MLM, Network Marketing and life. [email protected] www.facebook.com/teachmecrypto Disclaimer: I am not a financial advisor, this is for entertainment only and this is simply an expression of my thoughts and opinions based on my personal experiences. Your money, your investment, your risk. This channel does not provide investing advice and should not be used for making your decisions.
Views: 65 Bitcoin Brandon
Security Enhancements in Cincom VisualWorks 8 3
First Name: Jerry Last Name: Kott Title: Security Enhancements in Cincom® VisualWorks® 8.3 Abstract: The upcoming release Cincom VisualWorks 8.3 includes several security enhancements. In this presentation, Jerry will give an overview of what they are and how application developers can take full advantage of Cincom’s pluggable, platform-independent security framework. Among others, topics will include: • Added support for Authenticated Encryption with Additional Data (AEAD). This family of algorithms uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher as the base encryption algorithm, and applies Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) as the block chaining mechanism for data larger than a single block. Examples of use in both OpenSSL libcrypto and Windows BCrypt.dll cryptographic libraries and their interoperability. • Added support for Elliptic Curve cryptography on Windows, with a discussion of the limitations imposed by different versions of Windows. • High-level discussion of Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange algorithm and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), and how Cincom Smalltalk™ solves the lack of usable implementation in early versions of these algorithms on Windows. • An overview of newly added cipher suites to the TLSv1.2 protocol • Current status and plans for TLSv1.3 implementation Bio: Jerry Kott, a senior software engineer, has been with Cincom Systems, Inc. now for nine years. Jerry is a valuable member of the Protocols team responsible for network protocols, security and web application development components of the Cincom Smalltalk Foundation. With Cincom® ObjectStudio® and Cincom VisualWorks both built on the same Foundation, this engineering group is responsible for critical improvements that enhance both products. Specifically, Jerry brings a vast knowledge of network protocols and security to this team, instrumental in enhancing those components in Cincom Smalltalk. In his talk, Jerry will be discussing the latest Security Enhancements in Cincom VisualWorks 8.3. Prior to joining Cincom, Jerry worked as a Smalltalk consultant in a variety of industries including finance, insurance, telecommunications, manufacturing and entertainment. Throughout his career, Jerry has used most of the Smalltalk dialects. He first met Smalltalk/V in his native Czechoslovakia in 1988 while writing his Masters theses at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University of Prague. The political upheaval of 1988/1989 led Jerry to leave Czechoslovakia, and after a year in Austria, his family settled in Canada. While working as a programmer analyst at the TD Bank in Toronto, he was reintroduced to Smalltalk in 1993—this time with the intent of staying with it for good. Jerry’s recollection of his falling in love with Smalltalk can be summed up like this: 1. Day one: This is weird, no source code file? 2. Day two: This is interesting; I can inspect live objects and send messages to them! 3. Day three: This is great! I never want to use any other language! Jerry and his wife also recently got 450 programmers to “bite” on Cincom Smalltalk at Battlesnake 2017 where they came in second place with their Medusa algorithm. BattleSnake 2017 is a programming competition that was recently held in Victoria, BC, where teams of students and developers build web-based AIs for the classic arcade game “Snake.” While many platforms were used in developing these algorithms by other competitors, Jerry and his wife built their impressive algorithm using Cincom Smalltalk. When not programming in Smalltalk, Jerry uses his passion for photography and film by helping independent filmmakers as a cinematographer. He occasionally dabbles as an associate producer and assistant director. Jerry is also a member of Juan de Fuca Search and Rescue, a volunteer emergency response team that services the rugged western coastline of Vancouver Island off the West Coast of Canada. He recently started practicing with his dog Cindy to be accepted to the training program of British Columbia Search Dog Association. He lives in Victoria, British Columbia.
Views: 59 esugboard
34C3 -  We should share our secrets
https://media.ccc.de/v/34c3-8885-we_should_share_our_secrets Shamir secret sharing: How it works and how to implement it Backing up private keys in a secure manner is not straightforward. Once a backup has been compromised you need to refresh all your key material. For example, the disclosure of a private key of a Bitcoin wallet gives access to the coins inside. This makes it unattractive to store a complete backup of your private key(s) with your bank or your spouse. The better option would be to split the key into multiple parts. The recommended way to do this securely is to use the Shamir secret sharing scheme. This talk provides a detailed breakdown of how the scheme works and explains how it is implemented in C in a new library called SSS. Daan Sprenkels https://fahrplan.events.ccc.de/congress/2017/Fahrplan/events/8885.html
Views: 1247 media.ccc.de
"End-to-end encryption: Behind the scenes" by Martin Kleppmann, Diana Vasile
There is no cloud — it's just someone else's computer. And you're storing all sorts of sensitive data on it, blindly trusting that this computer will only allow access to authorised users. What if it is compromised? End-to-end encryption avoids having to trust the servers. Although PGP/GPG encrypted email never went mainstream, secure messaging apps like WhatsApp, Signal and iMessage have shown that it is feasible for millions of people to use end-to-end encryption without being security experts. But how do these protocols actually work? In this talk, we will dig into the details of secure messaging protocols — to understand the threats against which they defend, and how cryptographic operations are combined to implement those defences in the protocol. If you have ever wondered what "forward secrecy" means, how key exchange works, or how protocols can ensure you're communicating with the right person (not an impostor like a "man in the middle"), this talk will clear things up. We will also look at taking end-to-end encryption to other areas beyond instant messaging. What would it take to build an end-to-end secure version of Google Docs, for example?
Views: 6602 Strange Loop
Hashing Algorithms
Enterprise and Infrastructure Security About this course: This course introduces a series of advanced and current topics in cyber security, many of which are especially relevant in modern enterprise and infrastructure settings. The basics of enterprise compliance frameworks are provided with introduction to NIST and PCI. Hybrid cloud architectures are shown to provide an opportunity to fix many of the security weaknesses in modern perimeter local area networks. Emerging security issues in blockchain, blinding algorithms, Internet of Things (IoT), and critical infrastructure protection are also described for learners in the context of cyber risk. Mobile security and cloud security hyper-resilience approaches are also introduced. The course completes with some practical advice for learners on how to plan careers in cyber security. Module 3 Blockchain, Anonymity, and Critical Infrastructure Protection Dr. Edward G. Amoroso This module introduces several advanced topics in cyber security ranging from blockchain usage, user anonymity, and critical infrastructure protection. Learning Objectives • Summarize the basics of hash functions and how they generally work • Explain blockchain, including mining and chaining techniques for integrity • Explain onion routing and the Tor browser • Analyze Chaum's binding techniques for anonymity • Differentiate between critical and non-critical infrastructure for cyber protection To get certificate subscribe at: https://www.coursera.org/learn/intro-cyber-attacks/home/welcome https://www.coursera.org
Views: 36 intrigano
Symmetric Encryption Ciphers - CompTIA Security+ SY0-301: 6.2
See our entire index of CompTIA Security+ videos at http://www.FreeSecurityPlus.com - Symmetric encryption is a fundamental method of protecting data. In this video, you'll learn about symmetric ciphers such as RC4, DES, 3DES, AES, Blowfish, and Twofish.
Views: 16577 Professor Messer
The Eleventh HOPE (2016): "Stealing Bitcoin with Math"
Saturday, July 23, 2016: 8:00 pm (Lamarr): Bitcoin is the best thing that ever happened to bored applied cryptographers: it’s a public database of keys and signatures made by quickly developed software that, when broken, drops money as if it was loot. This talk will look at mistakes old and new that enabled attacks: from ECDSA repeated nonces to using Math.random to make keys, from double spending and transaction malleability to crappy brainwallets. The bad news is that most vulnerable wallets were emptied a long time ago. The good news is that we get to look at how (and how fast) “cryptocriminals” operate in the process. In any case, new tools that implement some of the attacks will be demoed and released. No need to be a Bitcoin or crypto wizard - everything you need in order to understand what those poor victims didn’t will be explained. Filippo Valsorda, Ryan Castellucci
Views: 18424 Channel2600
What are the Innovations Behind DFINITY? | INSIDE DFINITY
I sat down with Mahnush who joined the DFINITY team early on to talk about the various innovations that DFINITY will release. We cover terms such as Threshold Signatures, Random Beacon and Distributed Key Generation. We not only speak about these concepts but cover why they are so important. Topics Discussed: [1:40] Secure Multi-Party Computation [2:45] Cloud Computing [6:30] Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Protocol [7:30] Blockchain Protocols [8:30] Proof of Work [11:20] The Way DFINITY Creates Randomness [12:05] Threshold Cryptography [13:05] Uniqueness [15:51] DKG (Distributed Key Generation) [20:09] Sharding [20:50] Complete Proof in an Asynchronous Network [22:00] Non-Interactive DKG (Distributed Key Generation) [22:30] DFINTY's Sharding System [24:19] Block Time & Finality About Cédric: Cédric Waldburger joined DFINITY early on and is now focusing on the Growth. He leads the initiatives on Developer and Mining adoption, alongside with heading some of DFINITY's partnerships. Prior to joining DFINITY, he's been a founder and investor and has been a crypto enthusiast since 2012. He has been passionate about startups. Having founded his first company at the age of 14, he has built various tech companies related to productivity, computer vision, and cryptocurrencies. In this immensely exciting and obliging journey, he instigates the avenues of bringing the maximum impact wherever he can and is skilled to. For accomplishing this journey and his drive, he hasn't owned an apartment in several years. Instead, he has since lived out of a bag with only 64 things. About DFINITY: The DFINITY project was formed to research ways of enabling public decentralized networks to host a virtual computer of unlimited capacity. This rests upon a new blockchain computer that is similar in concept to Ethereum but has vastly improved performance and, ultimately, unlimited capacity. Follow Cédric: Blog: http://www.cedricwaldburger.com YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/cedricwaldburger Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/cedricwaldburger/ Facebook (private): http://www.facebook.com/cediwaldburger Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/cediwaldburger Follow DFINITY: Blog: http://medium.com/dfinity YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/dfinity Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/dfinity.org/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/dfinity Reddit: http://reddit.com/r/dfinity Telegram: https://t.me/dfinity Rocket.Chat: https://dfinity.rocket.chat/
Views: 854 DFINITY
How to Define Workflow with SAP ECC
Workflows are automation tools which help an organization to automate the checks and balances while efficiently executing a #Business process in an end-to-end manner. A #Workflow is a great tool to streamline the process and to have a better coordination among the business stakeholders. Here are the important aspects of configuring Workflow in #SAP ECC: *Defining a new workflow to send notification on Sales order change *Various panes of workflow builder *Use of conditional checks *How to test workflows *How to check the notifications in the business workplace Integrate #SAPECC with other Business Apps: https://www.appseconnect.com/sap-ecc-integrations/ Follow us on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/InSyncSolutions Twitter: https://twitter.com/Appseconnect Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/insync Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/appseconnect/ Google Plus: https://plus.google.com/+InsyncCoIn Pinterest: https://in.pinterest.com/appseconnect/
Views: 1582 InSync Solutions Ltd
A Brief History of Cryptographic Failures
Presentation File: http://www.slideshare.net/issantx/ntxissacsc4-a-brief-history-of-cryptographic-failures Cryptography is hard. It's not hard in the way a challenging video game is, or hard like getting through War and Peace without falling asleep, or even hard like learning a new skill. Cryptography is hard because it's both a system and a technical implementation, and failures in either part can have catastrophic (and sometimes existential) impacts. In this talk we'll take a look at some of the many ways that cryptographic systems have failed over the years, from accidental design flaws like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) defeat so elegantly demonstrated by the Electronic Frontier Foundation to intentional design flaws such as the reported National Security Agency (NSA) backdoor in the Dual Elliptic Curve (EC) Deterministic Random Bit Generator (DRBG). This talk will be a high-level discussion... no PhD in mathematics is required! Brian Mork is the Chief Information Security Officer for Celanese, where he acts as a senior level executive reporting to the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and leading the strategy and operations of Information and Systems Security. His areas of responsibility include the Security Operations Center (SOC), SAP security, global security architecture, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) security architecture and governance, and the firewalls. He is responsible for establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program to ensure that data information assets are adequately protected. Responsible for identifying, evaluating and reporting on information security risks in a manner that meets company needs, compliance and regulatory requirements. Mr. Mork oversees all technology risk management activities and acts as an advocate for all information security and business continuance best practices.
Views: 115 North Texas ISSA
Intro to ECC Libraries
Views: 55 Erie CC
rho Function — Introduction
Thinking smooth path planning all the way Watch part 2: https://youtu.be/31rMVDu0PKU More on jerk: https://youtu.be/LkLBVMgsSHQ A Boy And His Atom: https://youtu.be/oSCX78-8-q0 Thue-Morse-Sequence: https://youtu.be/prh72BLNjIk Thanks to AdriAno, Joachim and Tomba for extensive feedback! At 5:26 I accidentally say "jounce" instead of "jerk". Thanks to Tiemen and nick layman for pointing that out. But I also hate you. :P
Views: 643 AlmondBread
Quantum Robust: Winternitz one time signature scheme (W-OTS)
Views: 897 Bill Buchanan OBE
Elliptic curve cryptography
Elliptic curve cryptography is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. One of the main benefits in comparison with non-ECC cryptography is the same level of security provided by keys of smaller size. Elliptic curves are applicable for encryption, digital signatures, pseudo-random generators and other tasks. They are also used in several integer factorization algorithms that have applications in cryptography, such as Lenstra elliptic curve factorization. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2957 Audiopedia
Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption - CompTIA Security+ SY0-501 - 6.1
Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0501 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/501cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - If you’re planning to implement cryptography, then you’ll probably be using either symmetric encryption or asymmetric encryption. In this video, you’ll learn about both of these valuable encryption mechanisms. - - - - - Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 27867 Professor Messer
Public Key, Private Key, Symmetric Cryptography and Asymetric Cryptography ISO 27001 Training
Thanks For Watching This Video, I Hope You Must Have Liked It. If yes then please hit the subscribe button as I will be uploading a lot of IT security related training videos on this channel and if you will be my subscriber then you my friend will be the first one who will be notified about all my new videos my friend. If you have any questions for the topic that I have discussed in this video then please feel free to comment my friend and I will be happy to respond back to your queries... Please note that - all ISO 27001 documents and standards are completely owned intellectual property & copyright of ISO. So in case if by any chance you are interested to study more about the standard that I have discussed here then please go to the official ISO website in order to purchase the standards. This channel is only created to generate awareness and best practices for Information Security in general and if by any chance you wish to implement any of the standards that I have discussed here then you have to first purchase them from official ISO website. This channel is only created to help anyone who is currently studying or planning to study about ISMS Information Security Management System ISO 27001 Implementation. I want to make my contribution in the information security community.This channel is only created to generate awareness and best practices for Information Security in general. Disclaimer: Since ISO 27001 is a very vast topic and the implementation varies for all organization's so I can't ever call myself an "expert" in this field, all the knowledge and information that I am sharing here is only based upon my past experience in information security field and may not be directly applicable within your organization as such. So please use your judgement before implementing anything based upon my suggestions. I request you not to rely on anything that I say here, I do my best to be as accurate and as complete information that I can provide you “but” only the published standards are definitive. Only the published ISO standards stand above any information that I have shared in any of my videos. Thanks, Your IT Security Friend Luv Johar Website : http://aajkatech.com/ iso 27001 explained, iso 27001 awareness trainings, iso 27001 free trainings online, Iso 27001 free tutorials, ISO 27001 training material free, lead auditor free training course, lead implementer free training course, ISMS training free, information security management system training free,
btc.edu part 2: Application of Crypto Primitives On How Bitcoin is Built
Slides are here: http://goo.gl/qcliQ0 This developer centered course will be a deep exploration of the evolution of the cryptographic primitives underlying the bitcoin protocol. Symmetric and public-key ciphers, as well as elliptic curve signatures and cryptographic hash functions will be covered, as well as how it all ties together to form the basis of bitcoin. This is part 1 of a larger series of lectures for developers and researchers who want a thorough understanding of how bitcoin functions, and its potentials and risks. Part 2 will extend these cryptographic fundamentals to the specific implementation bitcoin uses, as well as a survey of other cryptographic primitives and mechanisms used in other currencies. The material in the cryptography I course on Coursera (https://www.coursera.org/course/cryptography) may be helpful to those who have less background in cryptography.
Views: 574 Taariq Lewis
Linear Cryptanalysis
Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 18367 nptelhrd
Kernel Recipes 2018 - TPM enabling the Crypto Ecosystem for enhanced Security - James Bottomley
For decades, all laptops have come with a TPM. Now with Microsoft forcing the transition to the next generation, Linux faces a challenge in that all the previous TPM 1.2 tools don’t work with 2.0. Having to create new tools for TPM 2.0 also provides the opportunity to integrate the TPM more closely into our current crypto systems and thus give Linux the advantage of TPM resident and therefore secure private keys. This talks will provide the current state of play in using TPM 2.0 in place of crypto sticks and USB keys for secure key handling; including the algorithm agility of TPM 2.0 which finally provides a support for Elliptic Curve keys which have become the default recently. This talk will provide an overview of current TSS (Trusted computing group Software Stack) for TPM 2.0 implementation on Linux, including a discussion of the two distinct Intel and IBM stacks with their relative strengths and weaknesses. We will then move on to integration of the TSS into existing crypto system implementations that allow using TPM resident keys to be used with common tools like openssl, gnutls, gpg, openssh and gnome-keyring. We will report on the current state of that integration including demonstrations of how it works and future plans. The ultimate goal is to enable the seamless use of TPM resident keys in all places where encrypted private keys are currently used, thus increasing greatly the security posture of a standard Linux desktop.
Views: 215 hupstream
Secret Key Exchange (Diffie-Hellman) - Computerphile
How do we exchange a secret key in the clear? Spoiler: We don't - Dr Mike Pound shows us exactly what happens. Mathematics bit: https://youtu.be/Yjrfm_oRO0w Computing Limit: https://youtu.be/jv2H9fp9dT8 https://www.facebook.com/computerphile https://twitter.com/computer_phile This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: https://bit.ly/nottscomputer Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at http://www.bradyharan.com
Views: 241464 Computerphile
Props | Route Cipher 2
Improbable Escapes sells escape room props and game plans for companies worldwide. Here, learn about the route cipher. Purchase online at www.popupescaperoomgames.com. Improbable Escapes Inc. www.popupescaperoomgames.com 1-800-570-0436 ext 2 [email protected]
Vlad Dragoi - Cryptanalysis of the McEliece Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Polar Codes
Title: Cryptanalysis of the McEliece Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Polar Codes Authors: Magali Bardet, Julia Chaulet, Vlad Dragoi, Ayoub Otmani, and Jean-Pierre Tillich 7th International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography PQCrypto 2016 https://pqcrypto2016.jp/program/ Proceedings http://www.springer.com/jp/book/9783319293592
Views: 393 PQCrypto 2016
What Happened To Bitcoin? | iArslan
Bitcoin’s 10-year history is full of overwhelming ups and downs. Let’s break down the key events and find out what really happened to Bitcoin? Subscribe Now https://goo.gl/Xhcsq8 The early years of Bitcoin On January 3rd, 2009, Bitcoin’s source code was released and the first block of 50 bitcoins were mined. 10 February 2011 - BTC reached parity with the US dollar. 2 April 2013 - Bitcoin for the first time exceeds $100. 28 November 2013 - Bitcoin for the first time exceeds $1,000. In the period between 2013-2014, a few events caused Bitcoin to fall in price. ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Follow and Like Me ☀ Twitter : https://twitter.com/iarslanpk ☀ Facebook: http://facebook.com/iarslanpk ☀ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/iarslanpk ☀ Visit Our Website https://www.sabparho.com ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ☀ If you found this video valuable, give it a like 👍 . ☀ If you know someone who needs to watch it, share it ↪️. ☀ Leave a comment below with your thoughts ✍. ☀ Add it to a playlist if you want to watch it later 🔄. In January 2017, the number of Japanese eCommerce stores accepting Bitcoin increases by 4.6 times over the last year. Bitcoin starts being widely used on the B2B supply chain. Japan and Russia use Bitcoin as a payment method. Norway’s largest online bank, Skandiabanken, introduces Bitcoin accounts. In March 2017, the number of GitHub projects connected with Bitcoin passed 10,000. Exchange trading volumes continued growing. For example, from January to May 2017, Poloniex had an increase of over 600% active online traders, and the volume of processed transactions increased by 640%. In August 2017, Bitcoin split into 2 derivative digital currencies – the Bitcoin (BTC) chain with 1 MB block size limit and the Bitcoin Cash (BCH) chain with 8 MB block size limit. This split was called the “Bitcoin Cash hard fork” 2018 wasn’t an easy year for Bitcoin. While some governments are trying to implement Bitcoin payments and contribute to its introduction, others only see it as a threat to the well-established traditional economy and law enforcement. For example, on January 22, 2018, South Korea released a regulation that requires all the Bitcoin traders to reveal their identity. Besides, anonymous BTC trading was banned. On January 24, 2018, the online payment firm Stripe decided to stop supporting Bitcoin payments by April 2018 on the pretext of rising fees and long transaction times.
Views: 4094 iArslan
Identification Protocols and Signature Schemes Based on Supersingular Isogeny Problems
Best paper award at Asiacrypt 2017. Paper by Steven D. Galbraith Christophe Petit and Javier Silva. See https://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=28294
Views: 174 TheIACR
Network Security - AES Selection Criteria
Fundamentals of Computer Network Security This specialization in intended for IT professionals, computer programmers, managers, IT security professionals who like to move up ladder, who are seeking to develop network system security skills. Through four courses, we will cover the Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems, Develop Secure Programs with Basic Cryptography and Crypto API, Hacking and Patching Web Applications, Perform Penetration Testing, and Secure Networked Systems with Firewall and IDS, which will prepare you to perform tasks as Cyber Security Engineer, IT Security Analyst, and Cyber Security Analyst. course 2 Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API: About this course: In this MOOC, we will learn the basic concepts and principles of cryptography, apply basic cryptoanalysis to decrypt messages encrypted with mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, and discuss the strongest encryption technique of the one-time-pad and related quantum key distribution systems. We will also learn the efficient symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data, discuss the DES and AES standards, study the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how they can prevent and detect the block swapping attacks, and examine how to defend against replay attacks. We will learn the Diffie-Hellman Symmetric Key Exchange Protocol to generate a symmetric key for two parties to communicate over insecure channel. We will learn the modular arithmetic and the Euler Totient Theorem to appreciate the RSA Asymmetric Crypto Algorithm, and use OpenSSL utility to realize the basic operations of RSA Crypto Algorithm. Armed with these knowledge, we learn how to use PHP Crypto API to write secure programs for encrypting and decrypting documents and for signing and verify documents. We then apply these techniques to enhance the registration process of a web site which ensures the account created is actually requested by the owner of the email account. Module 2 - Symmetric Key Cryptography In this module we present the basic mechanism of symmetric key crytography algorithms, discuss the DES and AES standard, describe the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how the block swapping attacks and replay attacks can be prevented and detected. Learning Objectives • Understand the criteria for selecting crypto algorithms • Perform cryptoanalysis on simple ciphers • Select operating modes for symmetric encryption and to prevent block swapping and replay attacks • Understand DES and AES standards and their buildig blocks Subscribe at: https://www.coursera.org
Views: 74 intrigano
SEAL homomorphic encryption demo
A school project using Microsoft's SEAL library
Views: 832 William Zhong
Securing data transfer in cluster based WSN using ID-ECDCA algorithm NS2 Project
Project Link : http://kasanpro.com/p/ns2/securing-data-transfer-cluster-based-wsn-id-ecdca-algorithm , Title :Securing data transfer in cluster based wireless sensor Networks using identity based elliptic curve digital Signature algorithm
Views: 112 kasanpro
Cryptography- In this lesson, Yashika Tandon teaches about cryptography and its elements. This lesson also covers the network security - cryptography. Network security is protection of the access to files, directories and information in a computer network against hacking, misuse and unauthorized changes to the system. In this lesson the basics of Network security, some definitions, terms and concepts.This course provides a complete knowledge on the concept of cryptography and how it can be implemented to protect the messages. You can watch the full list of courses and start discussions with the educator here: https://goo.gl/5fcBJV For more educational lessons by top educators download the Unacademy Learning App from Android Playstore: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.unacademyapp&hl=en or visit http://unacademy.com
Authenticated Anonymity by Math - OpenTechSummit 2016
Ruediger Weis (Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin), Bruno Kirschner (Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin) Number theory provides us many tools to create sometimes really surprising technologies for social communication. We have learned that math might be our last defence line against a real existing all-encompassing surveillance. One central challenge in this conflict is to combine authentication and anonymity. Since a lot of these technologies have not been brought to the implemented world yet, we want to present a proposal to integrate blind signature schemes over elliptic curves into Open PGP. About Ruediger Weis: Ruediger Weis has studied math at the University of Mannheim. After his PhD in computer science about cryptography for distributed systems he founded cryptolabs Amsterdam. From 2002 till 2005 he worked as Post-Doc researcher with Andy Tanenbaum at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. In 2005 he has accepted a professorship at the Technische Fachhochschule Berlin. Ruediger Weis is a longtime member of the Chaos Computer club and founding member of the Digitale Gesellschaft e.V.. Since 2016 he is also a member of the Minix 3 steering team. About Bruno Kirschner: Bruno Kirchner is a Master student at the Beuth-Hochschule fuer Technik in Berlin.
Views: 161 Adjy Leak
Setting up Security Boundaries for FISMA, FedRAMP, DIACAP
This high level video discusses the basic strategy behind establishing boundaries when seeking Federal certifications. Established boundaries provide scalability to your solution.
Views: 2260 Jeffrey Lush
High Performance BGP Security: Algorithms and Architectures
Speakers: Mehmet Adalier, Antara Teknik LLC KOTIKALAPUDI SRIRAM, National Institute of Standards and Technology The BGPsec protocol addresses several vulnerabilities associated with BGP. In particular, it provides cryptographic protection against prefix mis-originations and AS path attacks. However, the required cryptographic processing imposes additional workload on the route processor in edge routers. In this talk, we first provide an insight into the nature of computational complexities associated with BGPsec update processing. We then propose and evaluate optimizations for BGPsec update processing, including algorithmic, field level, and group level optimizations. We quantify the impact of these optimizations on BGPsec processing at the core cryptographic operations level as well as at the update message processing level. ECDSA signing and verification speeds with the proposed enhancements are compared against the fastest available OpenSSL implementation for the same. Further, we also report results on the speed of BGPsec update processing including the essential BGPsec functions such as data assembly, packet parsing, sorting AS path segments, fetching public keys, and executing ECDSA P256 signing and verification. Finally, we make use of reasonable projections for IPv4 and IPv6 growth rates, BGPsec adoption rate, and processor speedup, and present a model for BGPsec routing convergence time. This model considers BGPsec processing as incremental to the basic BGP processing, which includes best path selection, route filtering, applying policy filters, etc. A relative comparison is provided for convergence time projections for the BGP only scenario vs. mixed (BGP + BGPsec) scenario, which assumes that BGPsec adoption takes about two decades to go from zero to nearly complete global adoption.
Views: 530 TeamNANOG
What is ILLEGAL PRIME? What does ILLEGAL PRIME mean? ILLEGAL PRIME meaning, definition & explanation
What is ILLEGAL PRIME? What does ILLEGAL PRIME mean? ILLEGAL PRIME meaning - ILLEGAL PRIME definition - ILLEGAL PRIME explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. An illegal prime is a prime number that represents information whose possession or distribution is forbidden in some legal jurisdiction. One of the first illegal primes was found in 2001. When interpreted in a particular way, it describes a computer program that bypasses the digital rights management scheme used on DVDs. Distribution of such a program in the United States is illegal under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. An illegal prime is a kind of illegal number. One of the earliest illegal prime numbers was generated in March 2001 by Phil Carmody. Its binary representation corresponds to a compressed version of the C source code of a computer program implementing the DeCSS decryption algorithm, which can be used by a computer to circumvent a DVD's copy protection. Protests against the indictment of DeCSS author Jon Lech Johansen and legislation prohibiting publication of DeCSS code took many forms. One of them was the representation of the illegal code in a form that had an intrinsically archivable quality. Since the bits making up a computer program also represent a number, the plan was for the number to have some special property that would make it archivable and publishable (one method was to print it on a T-shirt). The primality of a number is a fundamental property of number theory and is therefore not dependent on legal definitions of any particular jurisdiction. The large prime database of The Prime Pages website records the top 20 primes of various special forms; one of them is proof of primality using the elliptic curve primality proving (ECPP) algorithm. Thus, if the number were large enough and proved prime using ECPP, it would be published. Specifically, Carmody applied Dirichlet's theorem to several prime candidates of the form k·256n + b, where k was the decimal representation of the original compressed file. Multiplying by a power of 256 adds as many trailing null characters to the gzip file as indicated in the exponent which would still result in the DeCSS C code when unzipped. Of those prime candidates, several were identified as probable prime using the open source program OpenPFGW, and one of them was proved prime using the ECPP algorithm implemented by the Titanix software. Even at the time of discovery in 2001, this 1401-digit number, of the form k·2562 + 2083, was too small to be mentioned, so Carmody created a 1905-digit prime, of the form k·256211 + 99, that was the tenth largest prime found using ECPP, a remarkable achievement by itself and worthy of being published on the lists of the highest prime numbers. In a way, by having this number independently published for a completely unrelated reason to the DeCSS code, he had been able to evade legal responsibility for the original software. Following this, Carmody also discovered another prime, this one being directly executable machine language for Linux i386, implementing the same functionality.
Views: 158 The Audiopedia
Whirlpool (hash function) | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Whirlpool (hash function) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In computer science and cryptography, Whirlpool (sometimes styled WHIRLPOOL) is a cryptographic hash function. It was designed by Vincent Rijmen (co-creator of the Advanced Encryption Standard) and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto, who first described it in 2000. The hash has been recommended by the NESSIE project. It has also been adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as part of the joint ISO/IEC 10118-3 international standard.
Views: 26 wikipedia tts
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC SERVICE PROVIDER? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC SERVICE PROVIDER mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC SERVICE PROVIDER meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SERVICE PROVIDER definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SERVICE PROVIDER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In Microsoft Windows, a Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) is a software library that implements the Microsoft CryptoAPI (CAPI). CSPs implement encoding and decoding functions, which computer application programs may use, for example, to implement strong user authentication or for secure email. CSPs are independent modules that can be used by different applications. A user program calls CryptoAPI functions and these are redirected to CSPs functions. Since CSPs are responsible for implementing cryptographic algorithms and standards, applications do not need to be concerned about security details. Furthermore, one application can define which CSP it is going to use on its calls to CryptoAPI. In fact, all cryptographic activity is implemented in CSPs. CryptoAPI only works as a bridge between the application and the CSP. CSPs are implemented basically as a special type of DLL with special restrictions on loading and use. Every CSP must be digitally signed by Microsoft and the signature is verified when Windows loads the CSP. In addition, after being loaded, Windows periodically re-scans the CSP to detect tampering, either by malicious software such as computer viruses or by the user him/herself trying to circumvent restrictions (for example on cryptographic key length) that might be built into the CSP's code. To obtain a signature, non-Microsoft CSP developers must supply paperwork to Microsoft promising to obey various legal restrictions and giving valid contact information. As of circa 2000, Microsoft did not charge any fees to supply these signatures. For development and testing purposes, a CSP developer can configure Windows to recognize the developer's own signatures instead of Microsoft's, but this is a somewhat complex and obscure operation unsuitable for nontechnical end users. The CAPI/CSP architecture had its origins in the era of restrictive US government controls on the export of cryptography. Microsoft's default or "base" CSP then included with Windows was limited to 512-bit RSA public-key cryptography and 40-bit symmetric cryptography, the maximum key lengths permitted in exportable mass market software at the time. CSPs implementing stronger cryptography were available only to U.S. residents, unless the CSPs themselves had received U.S. government export approval. The system of requiring CSPs to be signed only on presentation of completed paperwork was intended to prevent the easy spread of unauthorized CSPs implemented by anonymous or foreign developers. As such, it was presented as a concession made by Microsoft to the government, in order to get export approval for the CAPI itself. After the Bernstein v. United States court decision establishing computer source code as protected free speech and the transfer of cryptographic regulatory authority from the U.S. State Department to the more pro-export Commerce Department, the restrictions on key lengths were dropped, and the CSPs shipped with Windows now include full-strength cryptography. The main use of third-party CSPs is to interface with external cryptography hardware such as hardware security modules (HSM) or smart cards.
Views: 1769 The Audiopedia