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Databite No. 91: Bruce Schneier
 
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Bruce Schneier presents Security and Privacy in a Hyper-connected World: We’ have created a world where information technology permeates our economies, social interactions, and intimate selves. The combination of mobile, cloud computing, the Internet Things, persistent computing, and autonomy is resulting in something altogether different — a world-sized web. This World-Sized Web promises great benefits, but it is also vulnerable to a host of new threats from users, criminals, corporations, and governments. These threats can now result in physical damage and even death. In this talk, Bruce Schneier will take a retrospective look back at what we’ have learned from past attempts to secure these systems. He will also push us forward to consider seriously what technologies, laws, regulations, economic incentives, and social norms we will need to secure them in the future. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a security guru by the Economist. He is the author of 14 books, including the New York Times best-seller Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World, as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter Crypto-Gram and blog Schneier on Security are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project, and an advisory board member of EPIC and VerifiedVoting.org. He is also a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer of Resilient.
DEF CON 23 - Bruce Schneier - Questions and Answers
 
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Bruce Schneier Talks Security. Come hear about what's new, what's hot, and what's hype in security. NSA surveillance, airports, voting machines, ID cards, cryptography -- he'll talk about what's in the news and what matters. Always a lively and interesting talk. Speaker Bio: Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a “security guru” by the Economist. He is the author of 12 books—including the New York Times best-seller Data and Goliath: The Hidden Values to Collect Your Data and Control Your World—as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter “Crypto-Gram” and his blog “Schneier on Security” are read by over 250,000 people. He has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation’s Open Technology Institute, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and an advisory board member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center. He is the CTO of Resilient Systems.
Views: 24864 DEFCONConference
NSA - Codenames, Capabilities and Countermeasures - Bruce Schneier
 
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NSA: Codenames, Capabilities & Countermeasures - Presentation by Bruce Schneier - ShmooCon 2014. Bruce Schneier is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Bruce Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization. In 1994, Schneier published Applied Cryptography, which details the design, use, and implementation of cryptographic algorithms. In 2010 he published Cryptography Engineering, which is focused more on how to use cryptography in real systems and less on its internal design. He has also written books on security for a broader audience. In 2000, Schneier published Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World; in 2003, Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World; in 2012, Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive; and in 2015, Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World. Schneier writes a freely available monthly Internet newsletter on computer and other security issues, Crypto-Gram, as well as a security weblog, Schneier on Security. The blog focuses on the latest threats, and his own thoughts. The weblog started out as a way to publish essays before they appeared in Crypto-Gram, making it possible for others to comment on them while the stories were still current, but over time the newsletter became a monthly email version of the blog, re-edited and re-organized. Schneier is frequently quoted in the press on computer and other security issues, pointing out flaws in security and cryptographic implementations. Subscribe to this channel - http://www.youtube.com/c/ProperGander Proper Gander on Minds.com - http://www.minds.com/Joelsee Join Minds.com today: https://www.minds.com/register;referrer=Joelsee Proper Gander on Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/aProperGander PayPal Donations welcome. Click here: http://goo.gl/FxXWYQ Bruce Schneier wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Schneier NSA Codenames - https://cryptome.org/2014/01/nsa-codenames.htm List of government mass surveillance projects - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_government_mass_surveillance_projects NSA Nicknames and Codewords - http://electrospaces.blogspot.ca/p/nicknames-and-codewords.html The NSA’s weird alphabet soup of code names for secret spy programs and hacker tools - http://www.networkworld.com/article/2289018/security/130199-The-NSA-s-weird-alphabet-soup-of-code-names-for-secret-spy-programs-and-hacker-tools.html Schneier on Security - https://www.schneier.com/cgi-bin/mt/mt-search.cgi?tag=NSA The NSA Is Hoarding Vulnerabilities - https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2016/08/the_nsa_is_hoar.html Major NSA/Equation Group Leak - https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2016/08/major_nsaequati.html NSA surveillance: A guide to staying secure - https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/nsa-how-to-remain-secure-surveillance The NSA, Snowden, and Surveillance - http://crcs.seas.harvard.edu/event/bruce-schneier-crcs-lunch-seminar Congressional Reps Ask Bruce Schneier To Explain To Them What The NSA Is Doing, Because The NSA Won't Tell Them - https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20140116/13152525907/congressional-reps-ask-bruce-schneier-to-explain-to-them-what-nsa-is-doing-because-nsa-wont-tell-them.shtml Schneier on NSA's encryption defeating efforts: Trust no one - http://www.pcworld.com/article/2048268/schneier-on-nsas-encryption-defeating-efforts-trust-no-one.html Edward Snowden and Bruce Schneier discuss encryption and cyberwar - https://edwardsnowden.com/2015/01/26/edward-snowden-and-bruce-schneier-discuss-encryption-and-cyberwar/ "Undermining the Very Fabric of the Internet": Bruce Schneier on NSA's Secret Online Spying - https://www.democracynow.org/2013/9/6/undermining_the_very_fabric_of_the Schneier: The NSA Is Commandeering the Internet - https://news.slashdot.org/story/13/08/12/1850229/schneier-the-nsa-is-commandeering-the-internet National Security Agency - https://www.nsa.gov/ As always, use this info to gather more info.
Views: 1254 Proper Gander
Keynote: Security and Privacy in a Hyper-connected World - Bruce Schneier, Security Expert
 
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Keynote: Security and Privacy in a Hyper-connected World - Bruce Schneier, Security Expert We've created a world where information technology permeates our economies, social interactions, and intimate selves. The combination of mobile, cloud computing, the Internet Things, persistent computing, and autonomy are resulting in something different. This World-Sized Web promises great benefits, but is also vulnerable to a host of new threats. Threats from users, criminals, corporations, and governments. Threats that can now result in physical damage and even death. This talk looks back at what we've learned from past attempts to secure these systems, and forward at what technologies, laws, regulations, economic incentives, and social norms we need to secure them in the future. About Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by the Economist. He is the author of 14 books -- including the New York Times best-seller Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World -- as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and blog "Schneier on Security" are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project, and an advisory board member of EPIC and VerifiedVoting.org. He is also a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer of IBM Resilient.
Views: 2617 The Linux Foundation
Bruce Schneier Interview - Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security, Privacy and Social Media
 
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Bruce Schneier (@schneierblog) is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 13 books. In our wide-ranging conversation, we cover many things, including: - The difference between the US, Europe and Asia when it comes to privacy and data, and what it all means - Why IoT internet security is one of the biggest problems no one is talking about - Which tech giants will get broken up and which will reign - The problem with social media and ideas on how to solve it - How regulations affect business and monopolies and where we are headed - Why voting and elections are so succeptible to manipulation - How Bruce thinks about privacy in a surveillance capitalism economy - Why your car could kill you and your fridge won't feed you - The reason Bruce is optimistic and pessimistic about the future - Why things are going to get worse before they get better - The sad truth GDPR and data privacy - What you need to know about China, Huawei and surveillance In addition to his books, Bruce has hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers, his influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and his blog "Schneier on Security" is read by over 250,000 people. Bruce has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University; a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School; a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, AccessNow, and the Tor Project; an Advisory Board Member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center and VerifiedVoting.org; and a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer at IBM Resilient. VISIT THE DISRUPTORS FOR TONS MORE INTERVIEWS, TOPICS & GUIDES https://disruptors.fm SUBSCRIBE TO PODCAST ON iTUNES https://disruptors.fm/itunes SUBSCRIBE TO PODCAST ON ANDROID (Any Podcast App) https://disruptors.fm/android JOIN OUR NEWSLETTER + GET FREE AUDIOBOOK https://disruptors.fm/join SUPPORT US WITH TAX-DEDUCTIBLE DONATION https://disruptors.fm/support
NSA Surveillance and What To Do About It - Bruce Schneier
 
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This event was hosted by the Stanford Center for Internet and Society. https://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/events/nsa-surveillance-and-what-do-about-it-evening-talk-bruce-schneier Edward Snowden has given us an unprecedented window into the NSA's surveillance activities. Drawing from both the Snowden documents and revelations from previous whistleblowers, Bruce Schneier's talk described the sorts of surveillance the NSA conducts and how it conducts it. The emphasis was on the technical capabilities of the NSA, and not the politics or legality of their actions. Schneier then discussed what sorts of countermeasures are likely to frustrate any nation-state adversary with these sorts of capabilities. These will be techniques to raise the cost of wholesale surveillance in favor of targeted surveillance: ubiquitous encryption, target dispersal, anonymity tools, and so on. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 12 books -- including Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust Society Needs to Thrive -- as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and his blog "Schneier on Security" are read by over 250,000 people. He has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an Advisory Board Member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, and the Chief Technology Officer at Co3 Systems, Inc.
TEDxPSU - Bruce Schneier - Reconceptualizing Security
 
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Bruce Schneier is an internationally-renowned security technologist and author. Described by The Economist as a "security guru," he is best known as a refreshingly candid and lucid security critic and commentator. When people want to know how security really works, they turn to Schneier. His first bestseller, "Applied Cryptography," explained how the arcane science of secret codes actually works and was described by Wired as "the book the National Security Agency wanted never to be published." His book on computer and network security, "Secrets and Lies," was called by Fortune "[a] jewel box of little surprises you can actually use." "Beyond Fear" tackles the problems of security from the small to the large: personal safety, crime, corporate security, national security. His current book, "Schneier on Security," offers insight into everything from the risk of identity theft (vastly overrated) to the long-range security threat of unchecked presidential power and the surprisingly simple way to tamper-proof elections. Regularly quoted in the media — and subject of an Internet meme — he has testified on security before the U.S. Congress on several occasions and has written articles and op-eds for many major publications, including The New York Times, The Guardian, Forbes, Wired, Nature, and The Washington Post. Schneier also publishes a free monthly newsletter, Crypto-Gram, with more than 150,000 readers. In its 10 years of regular publication, Crypto-Gram has become one of the most widely read forums for free-wheeling discussions, pointed critiques, and serious debate about security. About TEDx, x = independently organized event In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized. (Subject to certain rules and regulations.)
Views: 48510 TEDx Talks
Databite No. 91: Bruce Schneier -- live stream
 
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Bruce Schneier presents: Security and Privacy in a Hyper-connected World We’ have created a world where information technology permeates our economies, social interactions, and intimate selves. The combination of mobile, cloud computing, the Internet Things, persistent computing, and autonomy is resulting in something altogether different -- a world-sized web. This World-Sized Web promises great benefits, but it is also vulnerable to a host of new threats from users, criminals, corporations, and governments. These threats can now result in physical damage and even death. In this talk, Bruce Schneier will take a retrospective look back at what we’ have learned from past attempts to secure these systems. He will also push us forward to consider seriously what technologies, laws, regulations, economic incentives, and social norms we will need to secure them in the future. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a security guru by the Economist. He is the author of 14 booksincluding the New York Times best-seller Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your Worldas well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter Crypto-Gram and blog Schneier on Security are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project, and an advisory board member of EPIC and VerifiedVoting.org. He is also a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer of Resilient.
Bruce Schneier
 
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Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier /ˈʃnaɪər/; born January 15, 19631 is an American cryptographer, computer security and privacy specialist, and writer He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundations Open Technology Institute He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO234 He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization5 Contents 1 Early life 2 Writings on computer security and general security 3 Viewpoints 31 Cryptography 32 Digital rights management 33 Homeland security 331 Movie plot threat 34 System design 35 Full disclosure 4 Other writing 5 Cryptographic algorithms 6 Publications 7 Activism 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Bruce Schneier is the son of Martin Schneier, a Brooklyn Supreme Court judge He grew up in Flatbush, attending PS 139 and Hunter High School6 After receiving a physics bachelors degree bruce schneier, bruce schneier cryptography, bruce schneier facts, bruce schneier crypto-gram, bruce schneier security, bruce schneier password manager Bruce Schneier
Views: 9 Speaking Videos
[DEFCON 20] Bruce Schneier Answers Your Questions
 
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Bruce Schneier Answers Your Questions Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier will answer questions topics ranging from the SHA-3 competition to the TSA to trust and society to squid. Internationally renowned security technologist Bruce Schneier has authored twelve books -- most recently Liars and Outliers -- and hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram," and his blog "Schneier on Security," are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is the Chief Security Technology Officer of BT. http://www.schneier.com
Views: 167 TalksDump
Hacking your Computer to Crash your Car - When Cybersecurity Fails
 
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Bruce Schneier (@schneierblog) is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 13 books. Here's the full episode: https://disruptors.fm/50-click-here-to-kill-everybody-security-privacy-social-media-and-politics-bruce-schneier/ In our wide-ranging conversation, we cover many things, including: - The difference between the US, Europe and Asia when it comes to privacy and data, and what it all means - Why IoT internet security is one of the biggest problems no one is talking about - Which tech giants will get broken up and which will reign - The problem with social media and ideas on how to solve it - How regulations affect business and monopolies and where we are headed - Why voting and elections are so succeptible to manipulation - How Bruce thinks about privacy in a surveillance capitalism economy - Why your car could kill you and your fridge won't feed you - The reason Bruce is optimistic and pessimistic about the future - Why things are going to get worse before they get better - The sad truth GDPR and data privacy - What you need to know about China, Huawei and surveillance In addition to his books, Bruce has hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers, his influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and his blog "Schneier on Security" is read by over 250,000 people. Bruce has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University; a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School; a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, AccessNow, and the Tor Project; an Advisory Board Member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center and VerifiedVoting.org; and a special advisor to IBM Security and the Chief Technology Officer at IBM Resilient. VISIT THE DISRUPTORS FOR TONS MORE INTERVIEWS, TOPICS & GUIDES https://disruptors.fm SUBSCRIBE TO PODCAST ON iTUNES https://disruptors.fm/itunes SUBSCRIBE TO PODCAST ON ANDROID (Any Podcast App) https://disruptors.fm/android JOIN OUR NEWSLETTER + GET FREE AUDIOBOOK https://disruptors.fm/join SUPPORT US WITH TAX-DEDUCTIBLE DONATION https://disruptors.fm/support
"The NSA, Snowden, and Surveillance" (CRCS Lunch Seminar)
 
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CRCS Lunch Seminar (Wednesday, December 18, 2013) Speaker: Bruce Schneier, Fellow, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard Law School; Honorary CRCS Affiliate Title: The NSA, Snowden, and Surveillance Abstract: Edward Snowden has given us an unprecedented window into the NSA's surveillance activities. Drawing from both the Snowden documents and revelations from previous whistleblowers, this talk describes the sorts of surveillance the NSA conducts and how it conducts it. The emphasis will be on the technical capabilities of the NSA, and not the politics or legality of their actions. I will then discuss what sorts of countermeasures are likely to frustrate any nation-state adversary with these sorts of capabilities. These will be techniques to raise the cost of wholesale surveillance in favor of targeted surveillance: ubiquitous encryption, target dispersal, anonymity tools, and so on. Bio: Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 12 books -- including Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust Society Needs to Thrive -- as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and his blog "Schneier on Security" are read by over 250,000 people. He has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an Advisory Board Member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, and the Security Futurologist for BT -- formerly British Telecom.
Views: 3517 Harvard's CRCS
Is Encryption the Answer as Snowden Said? - Experts Weigh In
 
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Ever since Edward Snowden released documents from the NSA, he's been talking about one thing: encryption. So we decided to ask the experts we speak to for their thoughts. Did they agree with Snowden, and what were their thoughts on encryption? Read the HackSurfer article: http://www.hacksurfer.com/posts/is-encryption-the-answer-as-snowden-said-experts-weigh-in
Views: 103 HackSurfer
BPN-2-Bruce Schneier NSA Surveillance
 
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Bruce Schneier talk about the NSA at MIT, NSA Surveillance and What To Do About It. Edward Snowden has given us an unprecedented window into the NSA's surveillance activities. Drawing from both the Snowden documents and revelations from previous whistleblowers, this talk describes the sorts of surveillance the NSA conducts and how it conducts it. The emphasis will be on the technical capabilities of the NSA, and not the politics or legality of their actions. I will then discuss what sorts of countermeasures are likely to frustrate any nation-state adversary with these sorts of capabilities. These will be techniques to raise the cost of wholesale surveillance in favor of targeted surveillance: ubiquitous encryption, target dispersal, anonymity tools, and so on. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 12 books -- including Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust Society Needs to Survive -- as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and blog "Schneier on Security" are read by over 250,000 people. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and an Advisory Board member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center. He is also the Chief Technology Officer of Co3 Systems, Inc. Source: https://youtu.be/QXtS6UcdOMs https://www.schneier.com/
Views: 32 BigPicture.news
USENIX Enigma 2016 - Security and Usability from the Frontlines of Enterprise IT
 
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Jon Oberheide, Co-Founder and CTO, Duo Security When you think about security and usability, IT is probably not the first thing to pop in your head. Yet the IT systems and security that underpin every organization are critical to secure the data of companies, their employees, and the consumers they serve. At the same time, the security industry has created a complex market that requires a encyclopedic glossary to navigate, solutions that require superhuman powers to operationalize, and a user experience where ""the users didn't hate it"" is a glowing endorsement. While the sales pitch of ""we suck less"" is more effective that you might imagine, empowered employees in modern organizations demand more of their IT organizations and expect the same streamlined user experience with technology at work as they do at home. The bar is low for IT security, but we can do better. In this talk, we'll share some of our philosophies on the intersection of simplicity, usability, and security applied to IT security controls, gleaned from our learnings at Duo protecting over 8,000 organizations of all shapes and sizes with diverse security cultures and user populations. We believe the impact that simplicity can have on security and usability for organizations, IT admins, and end users is undervalued, and advocate for further research. Sign up to find out more about Enigma conferences: https://www.usenix.org/conference/enigma2016#signup Watch all Enigma 2016 videos at: http://enigma.usenix.org/youtube
Cryptography | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography 00:03:38 1 Terminology 00:07:53 2 History of cryptography and cryptanalysis 00:08:55 2.1 Classic cryptography 00:16:37 2.2 Computer era 00:19:13 2.3 Advent of modern cryptography 00:21:54 3 Modern cryptography 00:23:02 3.1 Symmetric-key cryptography 00:23:13 3.2 Public-key cryptography 00:23:28 3.3 Cryptanalysis 00:27:58 3.4 Cryptographic primitives 00:34:01 3.5 Cryptosystems 00:40:06 4 Legal issues 00:41:12 4.1 Prohibitions 00:43:02 4.2 Export controls 00:43:12 4.3 NSA involvement 00:45:45 4.4 Digital rights management 00:48:46 4.5 Forced disclosure of encryption keys 00:50:51 5 See also 00:53:36 6 References 00:55:46 7 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8357640430680523 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Cryptography or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, translit. kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature often uses the names Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cryptography is heavily based on mathematical theory and computer science practice; cryptographic algorithms are designed around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break in practice by any adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. These schemes are therefore termed computationally secure; theoretical advances, e.g., improvements in integer factorization algorithms, and faster computing technology require these solutions to be continually adapted. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken even with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms. The growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography also plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts