This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lynching in the United States 00:03:30 1 Background 00:07:58 2 Name origin 00:08:28 3 Social characteristics 00:11:32 4 The West 00:14:42 5 Reconstruction (1865–1877) 00:18:48 6 Disenfranchisement (1877–1917) 00:23:19 6.1 Other ethnicities 00:26:20 6.2 Enforcing Jim Crow 00:33:30 7 Photographic records and postcards 00:38:22 7.1 Resistance 00:41:43 7.2 Federal action limited by the Solid South 00:44:53 7.3 Great Migration 00:46:53 8 World War I to World War II 00:47:04 8.1 Resistance 00:48:11 8.2 New Klan 00:51:26 8.3 Continuing resistance 00:57:00 8.4 Federal action and southern resistance 01:00:34 9 World War II to present 01:00:44 9.1 Second Great Migration 01:01:41 9.2 Federal action 01:03:36 9.3 Lynching and the Cold War 01:05:13 9.4 Civil Rights Movement 01:08:32 9.5 After the Civil Rights Movement 01:11:48 10 Effects 01:12:29 11 Statistics 01:18:30 12 Representation in popular culture 01:18:41 12.1 Literature and film 01:24:52 12.2 Strange Fruit 01:26:05 13 Laws 01:29:31 13.1 State laws 01:33:32 14 See also 01:33:41 15 Notes 01:33:49 16 Books and references 01:39:24 17 Further reading 01:43:36 18 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s but have continued to take place into the 21st century. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were also lynched, and white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were also lynched. Other ethnicities (white, Finnish-American, Jewish, Irish, Italian-American) were occasionally lynched. The stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, and are also easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.S. Victims were also killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot repeatedly, burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, and the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes removed and sold as souvenirs. Occasionally lynchings were not fatal (see Lynching survivors in the United States). A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions".According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South.Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were often large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers, sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train. However, in the later 20th century lynchings became more secretive, and were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system. He links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He also cites "the modern, racialized excesses of u ...
Views: 188 wikipedia tts
My advice is this: Settle! That's right. Don't worry about passion or intense connection. Don't nix a guy based on his annoying habit of yelling "Bravo!" in movie theaters. Overlook his halitosis or abysmal sense of aesthetics. Because if you want to have the infrastructure in place to have a family, settling is the way to go. Based on my observations, in fact, settling will probably make you happier in the long run, since many of those who marry with great expectations become more disillusioned with each passing year. (It's hard to maintain that level of zing when the conversation morphs into discussions about who's changing the diapers or balancing the checkbook.) Obviously, I wasn't always an advocate of settling. In fact, it took not settling to make me realize that settling is the better option, and even though settling is a rampant phenomenon, talking about it in a positive light makes people profoundly uncomfortable. Whenever I make the case for settling, people look at me with creased brows of disapproval or frowns of disappointment, the way a child might look at an older sibling who just informed her that Jerry's Kids aren't going to walk, even if you send them money. It's not only politically incorrect to get behind settling, it's downright un-American. Our culture tells us to keep our eyes on the prize (while our mothers, who know better, tell us not to be so picky), and the theme of holding out for true love (whatever that is—look at the divorce rate) permeates our collective mentality. Even situation comedies, starting in the 1970s with The Mary Tyler Moore Show and going all the way to Friends, feature endearing single women in the dating trenches, and there's supposed to be something romantic and even heroic about their search for true love. Of course, the crucial difference is that, whereas the earlier series begins after Mary has been jilted by her fiancé, the more modern-day Friends opens as Rachel Green leaves her nice-guy orthodontist fiancé at the altar simply because she isn't feeling it. But either way, in episode after episode, as both women continue to be unlucky in love, settling starts to look pretty darn appealing. Mary is supposed to be contentedly independent and fulfilled by her newsroom family, but in fact her life seems lonely. Are we to assume that at the end of the series, Mary, by then in her late 30s, found her soul mate after the lights in the newsroom went out and her work family was disbanded? If her experience was anything like mine or that of my single friends, it's unlikely. And while Rachel and her supposed soul mate, Ross, finally get together (for the umpteenth time) in the finale of Friends, do we feel confident that she'll be happier with Ross than she would have been had she settled down with Barry, the orthodontist, 10 years earlier? She and Ross have passion but have never had long-term stability, and the fireworks she experiences with him but not with Barry might actually turn out to be a liability, given how many times their relationship has already gone up in flames. It's equally questionable whether Sex and the City's Carrie Bradshaw, who cheated on her kindhearted and generous boyfriend, Aidan, only to end up with the more exciting but self-absorbed Mr. Big, will be better off in the framework of marriage and family. (Some time after the breakup, when Carrie ran into Aidan on the street, he was carrying his infant in a Baby Björn. Can anyone imagine Mr. Big walking around with a Björn?)
Views: 199023 Shari Wing
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Des Moines, Iowa 00:02:19 1 Etymology 00:03:41 2 Prehistory 00:03:50 2.1 Prehistoric inhabitants of early Des Moines 00:05:00 3 History 00:05:09 3.1 Origin of Fort Des Moines 00:06:40 3.2 Early, non-Native American, settlement 00:08:21 3.3 Era of growth 00:10:27 3.4 "City Beautiful" project, decline and rebirth 00:13:59 4 Cityscape 00:16:42 5 Geography 00:17:58 5.1 Metropolitan area 00:18:59 5.2 Climate 00:20:10 6 Demographics 00:20:19 6.1 2010 census 00:23:46 6.2 2000 census 00:26:48 7 Economy 00:28:24 8 Culture 00:28:33 8.1 Arts and theatre 00:32:34 8.2 Attractions 00:39:15 8.3 Festivals and events 00:40:22 9 Museums 00:40:44 10 Government 00:41:51 11 Transportation 00:45:16 12 Education 00:46:59 13 Media 00:47:32 13.1 Radio 00:47:40 13.1.1 Commercial stations 00:49:37 13.1.2 Non-commercial stations 00:51:03 13.2 Television 00:52:37 13.3 Print 00:53:36 14 Sports and recreation 00:53:45 14.1 Sports 00:56:35 14.2 Parks and recreation 01:00:07 15 Sister cities 01:01:03 16 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Des Moines ( (listen)) is the capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Iowa. It is also the county seat of Polk County. A small part of the city extends into Warren County. It was incorporated on September 22, 1851, as Fort Des Moines, which was shortened to "Des Moines" in 1857. It is on and named after the Des Moines River, which likely was adapted from the French colonial name, Rivière des Moines, meaning "River of the Monks". The city's population was 217,521 as of the 2017 population estimate. The five-county metropolitan area is ranked 89th in terms of population in the United States with 634,725 residents according to the 2016 estimate by the United States Census Bureau.Des Moines is a major center of the U.S. insurance industry, and has a sizable financial services and publishing business base. The city was credited as the "number one spot for U.S. insurance companies" in a Business Wire article and named the third-largest "insurance capital" of the world. The city is the headquarters for the Principal Financial Group, the Meredith Corporation, Ruan Transportation, EMC Insurance Companies, and Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield. Other major corporations such as Wells Fargo, Voya Financial, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, ACE Limited, Marsh, Monsanto, and DuPont Pioneer have large operations in or near the metropolitan area. In recent years, Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, and Facebook have built data-processing and logistical facilities in the Des Moines area. Forbes ranked Des Moines as the "Best Place for Business" in both 2010 and 2013. In 2014, NBC ranked Des Moines as the "Wealthiest City in America" according to its criteria.Des Moines is an important city in U.S. presidential politics; as the state's capital, it is the site of the first caucuses of the presidential primary cycle. Many presidential candidates set up campaign headquarters in Des Moines. A 2007 article in The New York Times said, "If you have any desire to witness presidential candidates in the most close-up and intimate of settings, there is arguably no better place to go than Des Moines."
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
This webinar introduces a new technology OriGene develops for the validation of antibody specificity. Non-specific antibodies recognize "off-targets" in addition to their intended targets, which could generate false-positive results. This new tool, High-density Protein Microarray, has been used to test the specificity of commercial diagnostic antibodies and found some are not specific to their targets. This tool is also applied to identify the ultra-specific antibodies UltraMABs.
Views: 2670 OriGene Technologies Inc.