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Tungsten  - The MOST REFRACTORY Metal ON EARTH!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will tell you about the top refractory metal on Earth – tungsten. Tungsten is one of the transition metals, and is located in group 6 of the periodic table of chemical elements. It got it’s name from the mineral wolframite, from which this mineral is obtained. Also, a tiny fun fact, wolfram is a Swedish word. Now if we look at the appearance, tungsten looks like a shiny metal with gray tint, though if you hold a rod of tungsten in the hand you may experience one special characteristic. The density of tungsten is almost 20 grams per cubic centimeter, which is very close to the density of gold. That is the reason why tungsten was used for faking gold bars. A couple of years ago there was news that some gold bars had a filling of tungsten inside, which of course is significantly cheaper than gold. Though the forgery causes skepticism among some scientists. To clearly demonstrate to you how much is 20 gram per cubic centimeter, I will compare the mass of a rod of tungsten and a rod of magnesium. As you can see, the tungsten rod is not only several times smaller than the magnesium one, but is also even heavier than the latter. Also, tungsten is a fairly brittle metal, it is plastic only when it has a very high purity. In addition, tungsten has the highest tensile strength. However, this is not the main feature of this metal. To melt a piece of tungsten, you need to reach an extremely high temperature of 3422 degrees Celsius. That is why this metal was at first used as the filament in incandescent bulbs. However, if you pass a current through the thin tungsten filament, it can overheat and then break, thereby ceasing any production of light . All is due to the fact that in air tungsten oxidizes at a high temperature, forming on its surface oxides of tungsten. Also, the tungsten rod after calcination with a gas burner obtains beautiful colored stains, caused by the different thickness of the oxide film on the metal surface. However, in light bulbs it’s not really about the beauty, more about the ability to actually produce light, hence all the oxygen from the bulb is pumped out and is replaced with a mixture of nitrogen and argon under reduced pressure. In these circumstances, the filament can shine for quite a long time. Also another fun fact, when taking pictures of the the filament in macro I’ve noticed the difference of the more powerful old light bulbs and the less powerful modern ones. In the old light bulbs the filament is made simply in the form of a spiral, but it turns out the modern ones have a double helix, making the filament thinner, which creates more sections of uneven thickness in the yarn, which then leads to the more rapid failure of the bulb. From a chemical point of view, tungsten is fairly stable, it is not soluble in hydrochloric or sulphuric acids. And the most stable compounds of hexavalent tungsten, such as, for example, the sodium tungstate are used as a catalyst of epoxidation in the organic synthesis, andin manufacturing of pigments. Sodium tungstate is soluble in water, but instead of water I will use the 30% acetic acid to obtain the so-called tungsten blue pigment that has a very intense color. To do this, we’ll add a piece of magnesium to the test-tube. Magnesium reacts with acetic acid, releasing hydrogen, which in turn recovers tungsten from the hexavalent state to tungsten oxide 3 with an admixture of other oxides. The formed particles of oxides are of a small size, allowing them to form colloidal solution of a bright blue or blue-green color. The shade depends mainly on the acidity of the environment. The obtained tungsten blue can be used as a good dye for fabric, paper or other items that have the ability to adsorb particles of tungsten blue. The metal tungsten has a very high hardness and is hardly turned on the grinding wheel. Today tungsten finds many applications. First and foremost, this metal is used in filaments for the halogen lamps, refractory electrodes for argon-arc welding, as well as in hard projectile cores in some military shells. The most common substance of the tungsten compounds is tungsten carbide, which also goes by the name Pobedit but mainly in Russia (which if you translate that to English means “will win”). It is mostly used as a cutter when machining metals or stones because of its high hardness. Quality high hardness steel would almost always be composed of tungsten. So that’s what this metal tungsten is like, which is found in practically every house and has the most interesting and unique properties.
Dissolving Gold in Mercury
 
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Follow me on Instagram: https://goo.gl/5oQiWQ Follow me on Twitter: https://goo.gl/uCmnV4 ----------------------------------------- Okay, so we are not truly dissolving the gold, we are actually forming an alloy between the gold and the mercury (called an amalgam). This process is not only cool to look at, but it also is really useful to extract gold from ore. The gold-mercury amalgam can then be isolated and the mercury is boiled off or removed chemically. This leaves behind relatively pure gold. Outro music: https://soundcloud.com/sorrysines
Views: 1425644 NileRed
Tin  - A Metal That DESTROYS ITSELF!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I want to tell you about such a metal as tin. In the periodic table of chemical elements, tin is in the 14th group among the so-called base metals. Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Tin script for the subtitles: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bw_R-2ve_CpvZmFPWF9aMkowdk0/view?usp=sharing
What Does Radiation Poisoning Do to Your Body?
 
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We all know ionizing radiation can be deadly, but how exactly does it damage the body? What does it do on a molecular level? What Does Nuclear Fallout Do To Your Body? - https://youtu.be/fYJ-FiRWY0c Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here - http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI Special thanks to Squarespace for supporting Seeker. Start your free trial today at https://www.squarespace.com, and use coupon code "seeker" to get 10% off your first purchase! Read More: Mars Astronauts Face Double the Cancer Risk as Previously Estimated, Says Study https://www.seeker.com/space/exploration/mars-astronauts-face-double-the-cancer-risk-as-previously-estimated-says-study "The radiation risk for a manned Mars mission would already be dangerously high, but damage to cells that are next to heavily damaged cells may double the estimated risk." The Internet Is Overreacting About Fukushima's Radiation, Here's Why https://www.seeker.com/the-internet-is-overreacting-about-fukushimas-radiation-heres-why-2257319567.html "Fascinatingly, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences told Japan Times they'd never even considered working with radiation this high, which is scary. Now that the cleanup crews finally have access to Reactor 2, they think they might be able to start removing the nuclear material by 2021, although some say later." Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Fact Sheet for Clinicians https://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/arsphysicianfactsheet.asp "Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) (sometimes known as radiation toxicity or radiation sickness) is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body (or most of the body) by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time (usually a matter of minutes). The major cause of this syndrome is depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells in specific tissues." ____________________ Seeker inspires us to see the world through the lens of science and evokes a sense of curiosity, optimism and adventure. Watch More Seeker on our website http://www.seeker.com/shows/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker on Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+dnews Seeker http://www.seeker.com/ Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here: http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI This episode of Seeker was written and hosted by Trace Dominguez.
Views: 1611100 Seeker
Sebastián Yatra - No Hay Nadie Más
 
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Music video by Sebastián Yatra performing No Hay Nadie Más. (C) 2018 UMG Recordings, Inc. http://vevo.ly/uVKu9Z
Views: 679333480 SebastianYatraVEVO
Grow Transparent Single Crystals of Alum salt at Home!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Hello everyone. Today we will grow some crystals, again. As in the previous video, I will try to describe the whole process of growing the crystals to you. First, we need to choose the material of which we will grow the crystal. Essentially, practically any substance is suitable for crystal growth. For example: protein crystals, crystals of iodine, metals crystals. Even air can be turned into a crystal when it is cooled to a certain temperature. For normal conditions, the best suited are inorganic salts. And for this time I will grow crystals of potassium alum. However, from personal experience, I would say that copper sulfate is the best substance for growing crystals at home. Table salt is not the best material. Bluestone is easier to buy and you will get beautiful blue crystals using it. To begin, let's take any vessel and pour there some of our salt. Next, pour hot water into the vessel and keep adding salt until it is no longer dissolvable. In this case, we get a saturated solution. Be sure to add hot water, to be safe with the proportions. Different salts have their own solubility curves. Solubility curve is a measure of how many grams of the salt can be dissolved in a 100 ml of water at a certain temperature. Also, for all of the salts the information is different. Once we have prepared our saturated salt solution, it has to be filtered while it is still hot. Filtering is not required. However, if you buy the chemicals in a garden shop, not in a special shop, the solution must be thoroughly cleaned from possible impurities. I would still recommend to initially use pure chemicals. After the filtration, let's leave our glass for a few days to let the crystals form. Crystals form as a result of the change in solubility of salts in the water when the temprature changes. Excess crystals, which cannot be dissolved in the solution, they fall to the bottom of the cup. After a day we may notice that beautiful crystals were formed at the bottom of the beaker. These crystals will be used as seeds. Seed is a small crystal that is immersed into the solution, which will continue to grow new layers of a crystal on top of it. Now let's merge the solution into another beaker. Next, choose the most beautiful and large crystal from the mass of crystals that were formed on the bottom of the cup, or the one that is easiest to tie on a thread. I could also advise here to use a thin fishing line instead of threads. Once we have tied a crystal to a beaker we pour our saturated solution of salt back there. You can tie a thread to a regular pencil and hung a crystal in a glass using it. However, for myself I've decided to use a system, in which the glass will be protected from dust. I think this is not necessary. At the moment we can only wait for the crystal to grow. Over the time of the growth of the crystal, it will become bigger and bigger. This occurs because the water from the solution will gradually evaporate, thereby increasing the concentration of the solution. Since we have a solubility curve, we can learn that the excess material that cannot be dissolved must go somewhere. And this is the substance that forms our single crystal. If we had not hung the seed, the crystals would have started to fall anywhere - on the bottom or on the walls of the beaker. And one more thing to mention! During the process of crystals growing, liquid from the cup will gradually evaporate, and therefore the crystals grow. But, that's also a problem. During the evaporation of liquid it comes to a certain time when there won't be enough solution in the cup anymore, and the further growth of the crystal will be impossible. To solve this, once a month or once in every two weeks it is necessary to add a saturated solution into the beaker. The saturated solution must be prepared the same way as it was before, by adding salt into a hot water. However, you should not add a warm solution. The saturated solution should be the same temperature as the growing crystal. Also, once a month or once every two weeks, I recommend filtering solution to maintain its cleanliness. Over time, in the solution some specks or other dirt might occur, which can screw up the crystal. Over time, my crystals from potassium alum become bigger. As you can see, they have acquired a very interesting form. And now, after about 3 months, I have grown two beautiful crystal of potassium alum. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Silver Nanoparticles turned into  Atomic Particles
 
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We know that silver can kill well over 650 different viruses and bacteria (they stopped counting at about 650). While 10, and even 20 PPM have been the dominant sellers for the last 60 years or so, the Rice University has concluded that nanoparticles are too massive to penetrate into pathogens and that conventional Low PPM Colloidal Silver, does not contain enough particulates (aka PPM) to ward off stubborn viruses and bacteria. In the electrolysis process that makes nanoparticles, there are two electrodes in the chemical solution that creates ions, as well as 2 nm to 200 nm of silver particles in a colloidal solution. The fact is that the electrolysis process cannot regulate the size of the nanoparticles that will be produced, it random. Our process can break down nanoparticles into individuals atoms, all of the particle sizes are atomic in size and are no longer metallic, but a crystal minerals state. Such particle sizes do not react to acid, even in the digestive system, and they are very easy to assimilate since they are already broken down to the absolute tiniest size achievable. We use a 100% Natural Non-Chemical Methods, in fact, we do not use any herbal or chemical catalysts of any kind. Just distilled water and the element, producing the world's most efficient colloidal products! Not just silver, also Gold, Platinum, Iridium, and many other hard to work with elements.
How to grow beautiful crystals of salt - do your chemical experiment!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Hello everyone, today we'll be growing beautiful single crystals. Crystals can be grown from almost any salt, however, for a better result I suggest using the copper sulfate one. Of course, you may also use an ordinary table salt for growing the crystals. The very first thing you should do before you'll start growing a crystal is to make a growing seed. Seed is a small crystal that is immersed in the solution, and that will grow there. It should be about the size of a pea. At first, lets take a glass and pour there a third or a half of the amount of a salt. Next, pour some hot water into the cup and stir it all. If you've added less, then you'll need to keep adding salt until it's no longer dissolvable. And after the salt is no longer dissolving and the solution become saturated it must now be filtered to get rid of various impurities. After filtration, add to the bottom of the glass a little copper sulfate and leave this glass for a few days to let the crystals form. After a day or so you should find at the bottom of the glass that there's a lot of beautiful crystals has been formed, about the size of a pea. Now we merge the solution into another cup, to pick open interlocked crystal mass. Take any knife or any other sharp tool and drill the crystal mass. Once we've scratched it all, pour everything into a bowl. Choose the smoothest and large crystal. Also, I advise you not to take the copper sulfate with your bare hands, it is better to do it with gloves on. Once we've chosen the largest crystal, it must be now tied to a thread. To do this, I came up with an interesting system in which you can conveniently change the height of the crystal. Also with this system the cup is protected from dust. We hung the crystal to a cup, and now all we do is wait. Growing crystals requires a lot of time and patience. When I was doing it before I was also growing a crystal out of mixture of potassium chloride and sodium chloride in parallel with making the crystal of copper sulfate. If you want to get a very smooth and a beautiful single crystal, you'll need to filter the solution every two weeks to maintain its cleanliness. If the solution is dirty, a crooked crystal will grow and you'll get polycrystal instead of that single crystal we want. Polycrystal is when a lot of crystals fused together. In this video, I will teach you how to grow crystals of salt at home. Growing crystals is very interesting and exciting hobby. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Rocks to gold part 3: Smelting the concentrates to a gold button
 
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In our final installment of our series Rock to Gold we take our gold rich concentrates and smelt them into a small gold button. By weighing the gold button we determine the troy ounces/grams per ton of the original rock. This was a fun video to make and I hope you guys enjoyed it. Please leave your comments and questions. Thanks
Views: 35968 mbmmllc
Day 2: Uber Elevate Summit 2019 | Uber
 
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Watch the Day 1 stream here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMBEev4MmU4 Watch more from the Uber Elevate Summit: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLmVTG4mAK7nyJ7pu7pTd_7q29YUHvPZEt The third annual Uber Elevate Summit, convenes the world’s foremost urban air mobility experts and collaborators in our nation’s capital. This year’s Uber Elevate Summit will build off of the energy and momentum into the Uber Elevate flywheel — this not only continues to increase the inevitability of urban aerial ridesharing, but it further cements our place in history as the undeniable leader of this transformation. SUBSCRIBE: https://www.youtube.com/user/UberWorldwide?sub_confirmation=1 About UBER: Uber started as a simple idea: What if you could request a ride from your phone? More than 5 billion trips later, we’re working to make transportation safer and more accessible, helping people order food quickly and affordably, reducing congestion in cities by getting more people into fewer cars, and creating opportunities for people to work on their own terms. Connect with UBER: Ride with UBER: https://www.uber.com/ Like UBER on FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/uber Follow UBER on TWITTER: https://twitter.com/Uber Follow UBER on INSTAGRAM: https://www.instagram.com/uber Day 2: Uber Elevate Summit 2019 | Uber https://www.youtube.com/user/UberWorldwide
Views: 9850 Uber
9. Verification and Validation
 
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MIT 16.842 Fundamentals of Systems Engineering, Fall 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/16-842F15 Instructor: Olivier de Weck The focus of this lecture is design verification and validation. Other concepts including design tesing and technical risk management and flight readiness review are also introduced. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 10751 MIT OpenCourseWare
How Does Electroplating Work | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about electroplating. The anode is positively charged, and the cathode is negatively charged. They are immersed in a solution called an electrolyte. The electrolyte and the anode are selected based upon the material that you are electroplating with. So if you want to create a copper plate on the cathode, you would use a copper anode and a copper based electrolyte solution. When the battery is turned on, the positively charged ions in the electrolyte are attracted to the cathode. Here, they gain electrons which is known as reduction. When the battery is turned on, the negatively charged ions in the electrolyte solution are attracted to the anode. The atoms within the anode, so the copper atoms in copper plating, lose electrons which is known as oxidation. These copper atoms are now positively charged and dissolve into the electrolyte solution. Once in the electrolyte solution, because they are now positively charged they are attracted over to the negative cathode. Hence electroplating the cathode. The electrons flow from the anode to the cathode. Half equations occur at each anode, with oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. Just remember, oxidation is loss of electrons and reduction is gain. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
24) Native Element Minerals Pt. 1
 
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Precious metals are our topic today, and copper. We take a close look at the native element metal minerals: copper, silver, gold, platinum and palladium.
Views: 4846 CVshorey
FASTEST TO A MAGNET: 1, 2 or 3 g osmium?
 
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Does mass matter when element samples are racing towards a magnet in my test for magnetic susceptibility? Let's find out! This video is sponsored by https://brilliant.org/Brainiac75/ One of the D150xH50 mm neodymium magnets was donated by magnetportal.de. You can see the unboxing here: https://youtu.be/yM4Xe2c0B8M Video with platinum group: https://youtu.be/sJ_SIOxMZ9E All my videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/brainiac75/videos FULL MUSIC CREDITS Time code: 0:00 New Planets - New Problems by Triune Films LLC. Royalty-free track bought from triunestore (Triune Scores: Trailer Pack Vol1). Time codes: 0:45 + 7:01 Fluidscape by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1100393 Time codes: 2:39 + 5:18 + 9:03 Perspectives by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1300027 Timecode: 4:34 Monkeys Spinning Monkeys by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1400011 Timecode: 8:15 Peace of Mind by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1200099
Views: 60343 Brainiac75
Environmental Tech - Mod Spotlight
 
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Environmental Tech is a great mod designed for resource generation and solar based power generation. In this spotlight, Captainjack explains how to progress through the modpack, and the specs for each of the high-tech multiblocks you can create using ET. Void Miner Resource Requirements: T1 24 Structure block T2 20 Structure Panel 2 Laser Core 1 Lens T2 4 Null Modifier 32 Structure block T2 16 Structure Panel 3 Laser Core 1 Lens T3 8 Null Modifier 56 Structure block T3 52 Structure Panel 4 Laser Core 1 Lens T4 12 Null Modifier 56 Structure block T4 56 Structure Panel 5 Laser Core 1 Lens T5 16 Null Modifier 72 Structure block T5 36 Structure Panel 6 Laser Core 1 Lens T6 20 Null Modifier 92 Structure block T6 56 Structure Panel 6 Laser Core 1 Lens [MODPACK] Direwolf20 1.12 Mod Version: 1.12.2 - 2.0.6b [ABOUT US] We are TheMindCrafters and we make tutorials/LPs/and Spotlights on our favorite (and guest requested) Minecraft mods, blocks, and modpacks Our Site - http://theMindCrafters.com Live Chat - http://theMindCrafters.com/#chat
Views: 87562 The MindCrafters
Post Malone - I Fall Apart
 
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Stream/Download "beerbongs & bentleys" - https://postmalone.lnk.to/beerbongsandbentleys 🎵 Post Malone 🎵 ● https://soundcloud.com/postmalone ● https://twitter.com/postmalone ● https://www.instagram.com/postmalone/ ● https://www.youtube.com/user/postmalone/ Check out our steam group if you're into gaming - https://steamcommunity.com/groups/PurpleTrackz 🔊 Check out PurpleTrackz on Social Media 🔊 • Twitter - http://bit.ly/PurpleTrackzT • Facebook - http://bit.ly/PurpleTrackzFB • Instagram - http://bit.ly/PurpleTrackzIG • Graphic Designer's Instagram - http://bit.ly/ptGraphics ● Follow Post Malone on Twitter to keep up with what he's doing now, I Fall Apart was an older release by him in 2016. ● Check out more of our content and as always leave a like and subscribe to enjoy more of our music that we share with you! ℗ 2016 Republic Records, a division of UMG Recordings, Inc.
Views: 173913694 PurpleTrackz
BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO NO MAN'S SKY - PART I: LEAVING THE PLANET
 
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Welcome all new players to No Man's Sky, here is a overly verbose guide that will give you all of the information you may need and more when starting your first game in No Man's Sky, it will also help those returning players who haven't played since 1.0 get back to grips with everything in the game. Click here to Support Xaine's World on Patreon and get all non-live videos early! http://www.patreon.com/xainesworld/ Helpful Videos for Beginner's & Veterans alike: • Exosuit Guide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOM0VOapS9A • Trading Guide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MUl8GMuRno • Farming Guide: Beginner https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCQRKb1iSYk • Farming Guide: Intermediate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbooVtuiydA • Farming Guide Advanced https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYuhipEkpbw • Living Glass Farm Build https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-8cAAxzDSc • Circuit Board Farm Build https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6czmQJDOYa0 • Stasis Device Farm Build Guide https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsguides/stasis-device-farm • Gas Cooperative https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJDNggYXaz4 • Prepare for What Comes NEXT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_L0GEJMepU • S Class Experimental Multitool https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0NumwQcWRM • S Class Fighter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=py2t2B5Aqa8 • S Class Hauler https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCKJ2qS44lQ • S Class Freighter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zZdaKp3F48 Helpful Tools: • Farmers Market https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsfarmersmarket/ • Shopping List Calculator https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsshoppingcalc/ • Rare Resource Portal List (2 Glyphs - Euclid) https://www.xainesworld.com/rareresources/ • Technology Resource Calculator https://www.xainesworld.com/nmstechcalc/ • Ket's Layout Editor https://ket.github.io/NMS-SlotLayout/index.html? Timestamps: 3:33 Scanning 5:56 Crafting & Inventory 9:10 Hazard Protection & Life Support 12:18 Fixing Your Ship PLEASE DO NOT CLAIM A BASE ON THESE PLANETS OR EVEN IN THE SAME SYSTEM! Doing so will prevent all travellers from harvesting from that base. Useful Farm Bases (Euclid): • My Home Planet Stasis Device Farm (Also great for Marrow Bulb farming) - 3-1-4-2-1-4-6-6-6-13-5-13 • Xenaslave's 2 Glyph Slow Grow Farm (Solanium & Cactus Flesh) - 2-1-2-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-1 • Xenaslave's Main Farm (5x LE, 5x CB, 5x LG) - 4-1-8-10-16-15-5-3-9-5-14-15 • Uncommon+ Resources Planet (One for the Marrow Bulb) - 2-2-2-2-2-1-1-1-1-1-2-2 • Special Christmassy Base! - 2-1-6-1-1-4-6-6-7-13-5-14 / 044C:0082:0D55:0050 • 14x Heat Capacitor & 22x Lubricant Farm Address - 4-1-11-5-1-5-6-6-6-13-5-14 / 044C:0083:0D54:00A4 • 28x Acid Farm Address - 2-1-6-9-1-3-6-6-9-13-5-14 / 044C:0081:0D57:0058 • 25x Living Glass Farm Address - 4-1-6-9-1-5-6-6-7-13-5-14 / 044C:0083:0D55:0058 • 20x Circuit Board Farm Address - 2-2-5-2-1-3-6-6-8-13-5-13 / 044B:0081:0D56:0141 Schedule: Monday - Video -- 8pm GMT/1pm PST Tuesday - Mass Effect Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Wednesday - Video -- 8pm GMT/1pm PST Thursday - Fallout: New Vegas Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Friday - N/A Saturday - N/A Sunday - NMS Permadeath Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Check me out on: • https://www.patreon.com/xainesworld • https://www.facebook.com/xainesworld • https://www.twitch.tv/xainekhlorik • https://twitter.com/XainesWorld • https://www.instagram.com/xainesworld Music (In Order): • Silent Partner - Magic Marker • Frakture - Hindsight • FREI - Moody • Nomyn - Daydreamer • Dylan Thomas - One Musician's Social Media & More: • Frakture https://soundcloud.com/fraktureuk https://twitter.com/fraktureuk https://www.youtube.com/user/fraktureuk • FREI http://fanlink.to/qvR https://facebook.com/Frei-15293252858... https://soundcloud.com/frejandersen • Nomyn https://soundcloud.com/nomyn https://facebook.com/NomynMusic https://youtube.com/channel/UCf1rozse... ●Dylan Thomas - One [Outertone Free Release] ●Song/Free Download - https://youtu.be/C138QYgL2zQ ●Support Dylan Thomas - http://smarturl.it/out-dt-one heroboard – free music to free your mind » Instagram: https://instagram.com/heroboard » Discord: https://discord.gg/CbYaj29 » Instagram: http://instagram.com/heroboard Bass Rebels ●Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/BassRebels ●Twitter - https://twitter.com/BassRebels ●Soundcloud - https://soundcloud.com/bassrebels ●Twitch - https://www.twitch.tv/bassrebels ●Hitbox - http://www.hitbox.tv/bassrebels ●Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/bassrebelsm...
Views: 40204 Xaine's World
Borderlands 2 - Part 2
 
05:49:34
Klaige - https://www.twitch.tv/klaige Mecharichter - https://www.twitch.tv/mecharichter Murphagator - https://www.twitch.tv/murphagator PJDiCesare - https://www.twitch.tv/pjdicesare
Views: 430 Team PLC
Mass Effect: Andromeda [เกราะที่ดีที่สุดของแต่ละสาย] การเล่นของคุณจะสบายขึ้น!!
 
04:34
สาย Combat Ket Fusion Arms V: 300 แต้ม Ket Fusion Chest V: 600 แต้ม Ket Fusion Helmet V: 300แต้ม Ket Fusion Legs V: 300แต้ม สิ่งที่ได้รับ +29% combat power damage +20% weapon damage วัตถุดิบรวมทั้งหมด 110 Kett Alloy 45 Renderable Plates 220 Cadmium 13 Eiroch Fluid Sac --------------------------------------------------- สาย Biotics N7 Arms V: 300แต้ม N7 Chest V: 600แต้ม N7 Helmet V: 300แต้ม N7 Legs V: 300แต้ม สิ่งที่ได้รับ +31% max shields +28% biotic power damage +15% biotic recharge speed วัตถุดิบรวมทั้งหมด 120 Omni-Gel Canister 480 Copper 240 Iridium 60 Platinum --------------------------------------------------- สาย Tech Angaran Gurrellia Arms V: 225แต้ม Angaran Gurrellia Chest V: 450แต้ม Angaran Gurrellia Helmet V: 225แต้ม Angaran Gurrellia Legs V: 225แต้ม สิ่งที่ได้รับ +29% tech power damage +29% tech Effect Duration +29% max Shields +20% tech construct damage วัตถุดิบรวมทั้งหมด 120 Angaran Meditation Crystal 48 Shell Filaments 240 Iridium 60 Titanium --------------------------------------------------- สายเกราะ Remnant Heritage Arms V: 300แต้ม Remnant Heritage Chest V: 600แต้ม Remnant Heritage Helmet V: 300แต้ม Remnant Heritage Legs V: 300แต้ม สิ่งที่ได้รับ +31 damage resistance +48% in health and shield regeneration +30% health & shield regeneration delay reduction วัตถุดิบรวมทั้งหมด 120 Remnant Polymer 480 Silicon 240 Uranium 60 Platinum --------------------------------------------------- สาย Vanguard Hyperguardian Arms V: 225แต้ม Hyperguardian Chest V: 450แต้ม Hyperguardian Helmet V: 225แต้ม Hyperguardian Legs V: 225แต้ม สิ่งที่ได้รับ +65% max health +31% max shields +30% melee damage วัตถุดิบรวมทั้งหมด 120 Omni-Gel Canister 48 Scale Fibers 240 Nickel 60 Titanium ******************************************************************** Mass Effect Andromeda Guide & Walkthrough -เควสหลัก -เควสรอง -บอสทุกตัว -ของสะสมต่างๆ ******************************************************************** ถ้าชอบก็กด Like & Subscribe นะครับ ขอบพระคุณมากครับ ฝากติดตามผลงานด้วยครับ&Live สดทุกวัน!! https://gaming.youtube.com/channel/UCk9EWCxMiaw58P2fTBb_vow Facebook https://www.facebook.com/huajaicarrytv/
Views: 258 HuajaiCarryTV
Mod-01 Lec-22 Magnetic materials I
 
56:07
Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 13798 nptelhrd
Pariah Planet by Murray Leinster, read by Mark Nelson, complete unabridged audiobook
 
03:59:00
Unabridged audio book - Genre(s): Action & Adventure Fiction, General Fiction, Science Fiction Pariah Planet Murray Leinster (1896 - 1975) Read by Mark Nelson When the blue plague appeared on the planet of Dara, fear struck nearby worlds. The fear led to a hate that threatened the lives of millions and endangered the Galactic peace. But the Med Service ship Aesculapius 20 with Calhoun and Murgatroyd the Tormal aboard are on the job and have stumbled into the horrible mess caused by unreasoning hatred, quarantine, mass starvation and worse. Calhoun must use all his medical knowledge and significant skills to even understand the situation here in neglected Sector 12. Can he and Murgatroyd untangle this Gordian's knot and live to tell the tale? Maybe and maybe not. Listen and find out. 00:00:00 Chapter 1 00:32:36 Chapter 2 01:00:34 Chapter 3 01:27:14 Chapter 4 01:56:21 Chapter 5 02:31:06 Chapter 6 03:03:04 Chapter 7 03:35:39 Chapter 8 Total running time 03:58:58 Murray Leinster playlist -» http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLG03REJaYO-mSxPZUv5X4NfCqJJziM0U Audio Recording © courtesy of Librivox This video: © Copyright 2013. PublicAudioLibrary. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 10215 PublicAudioLibrary
Space Platform by Murray Leinster, read by Mark Nelson, complete unabridged audiobook
 
06:17:03
Unabridged audio book - Genre(s): Action & Adventure Fiction, Fantastic Fiction, Science Fiction Space Platform By Murray Leinster (1896 - 1975) SPACE PLATFORM tells the exciting story of a young man helping to build this first station. With scientific accuracy and imagination Murray Leinster, one of the world's top science-fiction writers, describes the building and launching of the platform. Here is a fast-paced story of sabotage and murder directed against a project more secret and valuable than the atom bomb! - Summary by Gutenberg text Read by: Mark Nelson Book Coordinator: Mark Nelson Meta Coordinator: Bev J. Stevens Proof Listener: DaveC 00:00:00 Chapter 1 00:30:13 Chapter 2 00:56:41 Chapter 3 01:29:55 Chapter 4 01:48:45 Chapter 5 02:19:52 Chapter 6 02:50:53 Chapter 7 03:20:55 Chapter 8 03:49:39 Chapter 9 04:26:25 Chapter 10 04:57:25 Chapter 11 05:27:39 Chapter 12 05:51:33 Chapter 13 Running Time: 06:17:02 Murray Leinster playlist -» http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLG03REJaYO-mSxPZUv5X4NfCqJJziM0U Audio Recording © courtesy of Librivox This video: © Copyright 2013. PublicAudioLibrary. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 19781 PublicAudioLibrary
First Lensman by E. E. "Doc" Smith
 
11:05:24
The Secret Planet. No human had ever landed on the hidden planet of Arisia. A mysterious space barrier turned back both men and ships. Then the word came to Earth, "Go to Arisia!", Virgil Samms of the Galactic Patrol went--and came back with the Lens, the strange device that gave its wearer powers no man had ever possessed before. Samms knew the price of that power would be high. But even he had no idea of the ultimate cost, and the weird destiny waiting for the First Lensman. Chapter 01 - 00:00 Chapter 02 - 26:33 Chapter 03 - 53:59 Chapter 04 - 1:35:51 Chapter 05 - 2:10:29 Chapter 06 - 2:40:32 Chapter 07 - 3:15:50 Chapter 08 - 3:57:20 Chapter 09 - 4:32:16 Chapter 10 - 5:11:01 Chapter 11 - 5:39:49 Chapter 12 - 6:07:00 Chapter 13 - 6:36:42 Chapter 14 - 7:19:25 Chapter 15 - 7:54:03 Chapter 16 - 8:27:32 Chapter 17 - 8:59:09 Chapter 18 - 9:27:21 Chapter 19 - 10:00:35 Chapter 20 - 10:34:30 Epilogue - 10:57:51 This is preceded by "Triplanetary": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCopS8Yfnko This is followed by "Galactic Patrol". Read by: Mark Nelson (https://librivox.org/reader/251)
Views: 10430 Audiobooks Unleashed
The Science of Monatomic Elements
 
11:56
The Science of Monatomic Elements The center of the periodic chart of elements consists of what are known as the "transition elements," meaning that they can transit from metallic to monatomic or diatomic via chemical treatment or through other means (what some would refer to as "shadow chemistry" or "arcane chemistry" or even "alchemy"). Take gold for example. When you have two or more gold atoms in a microcluster, it will have metallic properties, but if you have only one atom, it will then have ceramic properties, which means that it becomes chemically inert but at the same time will have superconductive capabilities even at room temperature. The weight of these amazing materials can also change by heating, becoming lighter, even to the point of levitation. Because it is chemically inert, it can be ingested for health, wellbeing and super-energizing at the cellular level... SOURCES: Part of the article is excerpted from an Article Originally Written by Everett Karels Website: https://blueemeraldalchemy.com Check the article here: https://blueemeraldalchemy.com/thescience.html Video's Free Royal Music source: https://musopen.org LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW ********************************** WELCOME! 😃 SUBSCRIBE ► http://bit.ly/2fu2wQF | ★ PREVIOUS VIDEOS ► http://bit.ly/2vHZRJk | ★ PLAYLISTS ► http://bit.ly/2ihjMJZ ★ SUBSCRIBE TO MY CHANNEL TO BE INFORMED FOR NEW VIDEOS! Use The Subtitles/Closed Captions provided if necessary that you can find on the right bottom of the videos with the words CC. ► Become a Holy Guardian Angel contributer! Send your own articles (related to the Playlists) to the channel for consideration. You can also record them with your own voice, or send them via email to me. Send everything to: [email protected] LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW ********************************** Social Media & Other Links: SUBSCRIBE ► http://bit.ly/2fu2wQF PAYPAL DONATIONS WELCOME [email protected] ► http://bit.ly/2w3B5mP LIKE MY FACEBOOK ► http://bit.ly/2usDEeA FOLLOW ME ON TWITTER ► http://bit.ly/2urLb1e FOLLOW GOOGLE+1 ME ► http://bit.ly/2vSmewd CHECK OUT MY OTHER VIDEOS ► http://bit.ly/2vHZRJk THANK YOU FOR WATCHING THIS VIDEO! LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW Be Blessed **********************************
Alum
 
20:34
Alum /ˈæləm/ is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. The specific compound is the hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate (potassium alum) with the formula KAl(SO This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1144 Audiopedia
Radium
 
23:16
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. The color of pure radium is almost pure white, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas. When radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence. Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1910. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4727 Audiopedia
Silicon
 
34:10
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery; it was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1823. In 1808, it was given the name silicium (from Latin: silex, hard stone or flint), with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-English languages. However, its final English name, first suggested in 1817, reflects the more physically similar elements carbon and boron. Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature. It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 899 Audiopedia
MIT Professor Walter Lewi's Physics 801 Lecture 31
 
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Topics covered: Systems consisting of pendulums and springs can freely oscillate at their natural frequencies (also called normal modes). When we expose a system to a wide spectrum of frequencies, the response will be very large at the normal mode frequencies (resonances) of that system. Examples include musical instruments (standing waves on violin strings and pressure waves in wind instruments), and torsional standing waves on a bridge driven by strong winds.
Views: 4880 Chang Barrick
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids on the Periodic Table
 
01:29
A description and practice of finding metals, nonmetals, and metalloids on the Periodic Table. In general metals are found on the left-hand side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are found on the right-hand side. Between them are the metalloids. Note that Hydrogen (H) is an exception. It is a nonmetal but is found on the left-hand side of the Periodic Table. This is because it has one valence electrons in its outer shell like the other elements in Group 1, but it has physical and chemical characteristics of nonmetals.
Views: 120684 Wayne Breslyn
Mod-01 Lec-40 Perceptions & Projections
 
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Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 1284 nptelhrd
Iridium | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iridium 00:02:39 1 Characteristics 00:02:48 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:35 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:05 1.3 Compounds 00:09:58 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:17 2 History 00:12:26 2.1 Platinum group 00:13:08 2.2 Discovery 00:14:44 2.3 Metalworking and applications 00:17:06 3 Occurrence 00:19:42 3.1 Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary presence 00:20:46 4 Production 00:22:56 5 Applications 00:23:50 5.1 Industrial and medical 00:26:33 5.2 Scientific 00:29:04 5.3 Historical 00:30:25 6 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest metal (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. However at room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3, 0.04 g/cm3 higher than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named iridium for the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium, as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two. The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust. For this reason, the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 66 million years ago. Similarly, an iridium anomaly in core samples from the Pacific Ocean suggested the Eltanin impact of about 2.5 million years ago. It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum-group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.
Views: 17 wikipedia tts
2014 Killian Lecture: Stephen J. Lippard, "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs"
 
01:15:55
Lecture title: "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs" Stephen Lippard, the Arthur Amos Noyes professor in the Department of Chemistry, was MIT’s James R. Killian Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2013–2014. Professor Lippard has spent his career studying the role of inorganic molecules, especially metal ions and their complexes, in critical processes of biological systems. He has made pioneering contributions in understanding the mechanism of the cancer drug cisplatin and in designing new variants to combat drug resistance and side effects. Tuesday, April 1, 2014 Huntington Hall (10-250)
Iridium | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:52
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Iridium 00:02:39 1 Characteristics 00:02:48 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:34 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:04 1.3 Compounds 00:09:56 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:14 2 History 00:12:23 2.1 Platinum group 00:13:05 2.2 Discovery 00:14:42 2.3 Metalworking and applications 00:17:03 3 Occurrence 00:19:39 3.1 Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary presence 00:20:42 4 Production 00:22:52 5 Applications 00:23:46 5.1 Industrial and medical 00:26:28 5.2 Scientific 00:28:59 5.3 Historical 00:30:20 6 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest element (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. However at room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3, 0.04 g/cm3 higher than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named iridium for the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium, as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two. The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust. For this reason, the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 66 million years ago. Similarly, an iridium anomaly in core samples from the Pacific Ocean suggested the Eltanin impact of about 2.5 million years ago. It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum-group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.
Views: 24 wikipedia tts
Bases at Woodborough   Harald Kautz Vella Crni gu 20.06.2015.
 
02:10:29
Harald Kautz-Vella daje detaljnu lekciju o dve vrste crnog gua, Morgelonima i veštačkoj inteligenciji na konferenciji " Bases Woodborough" održanoj 20. juna 2015. On je ko-autor knjige Opasna imaginacija tiha asimilacija sa Karom Sent Luis koja je intervjuisana na Bases 45 linkovi za neke pojmove: https://sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gov%C4%91a_spongiformna_encefalopatija Prioni https://sr.wikipedia.org/sr-el/%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8
Views: 583 Natasa Ve
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
 
53:27
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, formerly known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of plant and animal species on Earth—including all non-avian dinosaurs—that occurred over a geologically short period of time 66 million years ago. It marked the end of the Cretaceous period and with it, the entire Mesozoic Era, opening the Cenozoic Era which continues today. In the geologic record, the K–Pg event is marked by a thin layer of sediment called the K–Pg boundary, which can be found throughout the world in marine and terrestrial rocks. The boundary clay shows high levels of the metal iridium, which is rare in the Earth's crust but abundant in asteroids. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3563 Audiopedia
Sapphire
 
25:16
Sapphire (Greek: σάπφειρος; sappheiros, 'blue stone', which probably referred instead at the time to lapis lazuli) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3). Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum blue, yellow, purple, orange, or a greenish color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield a pink or red tint, the latter being called a ruby. Commonly, sapphires are worn in jewelry. Sapphires may be found naturally, by searching through certain sediments (due to their resistance to being eroded compared to softer stones) or rock formations. They also may be manufactured for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires—9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, right behind diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.25)—and of aluminium oxide in general, sapphires are used in some non-ornamental applications, including infrared optical components, such as in scientific instruments; high-durability windows; wristwatch crystals and movement bearings; and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of very special-purpose solid-state electronics (especially integrated circuits and GaN-based LEDs). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 137 Audiopedia
Mod-01 Lec-10 Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Monolayers to Multilayers
 
57:40
Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 860 nptelhrd
Snowball Earth | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:10:11
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowball_Earth 00:01:55 1 History 00:02:04 1.1 Evidence for ancient glaciation mounts 00:03:14 1.2 Global glaciation proposed 00:08:46 2 Evidence 00:11:18 2.1 Palaeomagnetism 00:16:01 2.2 Low-latitude glacial deposits 00:18:16 2.3 Open-water deposits 00:19:55 2.4 Carbon isotope ratios 00:21:42 2.5 Banded iron formations 00:24:34 2.6 Cap carbonate rocks 00:28:32 2.7 Changing acidity 00:29:15 2.8 Space dust 00:30:19 2.9 Cyclic climate fluctuations 00:31:55 3 Mechanisms 00:34:17 3.1 Continental distribution 00:40:09 3.2 During the frozen period 00:40:48 3.3 Breaking out of global glaciation 00:45:16 3.4 Slushball Earth hypothesis 00:47:33 4 Scientific dispute 00:49:41 4.1 "Zipper rift" hypothesis 00:51:56 4.2 High-obliquity hypothesis 00:53:00 4.3 Inertial interchange true polar wander 00:54:18 5 Survival of life through frozen periods 00:59:40 6 Implications 01:01:08 6.1 Effect on early evolution 01:05:59 6.2 Effects on ocean circulation 01:06:25 7 Occurrence and timing 01:06:35 7.1 Neoproterozoic 01:08:07 7.2 Palaeoproterozoic 01:09:26 7.3 Karoo Ice Age Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7058119959456406 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that during one or more of Earth's icehouse climates, Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago). Proponents of the hypothesis argue that it best explains sedimentary deposits generally regarded as of glacial origin at tropical palaeolatitudes and other enigmatic features in the geological record. Opponents of the hypothesis contest the implications of the geological evidence for global glaciation and the geophysical feasibility of an ice- or slush-covered ocean and emphasize the difficulty of escaping an all-frozen condition. A number of unanswered questions remain, including whether the Earth was a full snowball, or a "slushball" with a thin equatorial band of open (or seasonally open) water. The snowball-Earth episodes are proposed to have occurred before the sudden radiation of multicellular bioforms, known as the Cambrian explosion. The most recent snowball episode may have triggered the evolution of multicellularity. Another, much earlier and longer snowball episode, the Huronian glaciation, which would have occurred 2400 to 2100 Mya, may have been triggered by the first appearance of oxygen in the atmosphere, the "Great Oxygenation Event".
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Nitrogen | Wikipedia audio article
 
59:17
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Nitrogen Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.
Views: 33 wikipedia tts
The World Set Free by H. G. WELLS - Full Free Audio Book
 
08:10:01
0:00:00 00 Prelude 0:55:46 01 Chapter 1, The Sun Snarers, part one 1:34:56 02 Chapter 1, The Sun Snarers, part two 2:12:36 03 Chapter 2, The Last War, part one 2:58:14 04 Chapter 2, The Last War, part two 3:49:17 05 Chapter 3, The Ending of War, part one 4:47:58 06 Chapter 3, The Ending of War, part two 5:27:05 07 Chapter 4, The New Phase, part one 6:21:49 08 Chapter 4, The New Phase, part two 6:57:38 09 Chapter 5, The Last Days of Marcus Karenin, part one 7:33:28 10 Chapter 5, The Last Days of Marcus Karenin, part two Online text: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1059/1059-h/1059-h.htm Read by:LivelyHive Book Coordinator:LivelyHive Meta Coordinator:Carl Manchester Proof Listener:Wendel Topper The World Set Free H. G. WELLS (1866 - 1946) The World Set Free is a novel published in 1914 by H. G. Wells. The book is considered a prophetical novel foretelling the advent of nuclear weapons. A constant theme in Wells's work, such as his 1901 nonfiction book Anticipations, was the role of energy and technological advance as a determinant of human progress. The novel opens: "The history of mankind is the history of the attainment of external power. Man is the tool-using, fire-making animal." Scientists of the day were well aware that the slow natural radioactive decay of elements like radium continues for thousands of years, and that while the rate of energy release is negligible, the total amount released is huge. Wells used this as the basis for his story. (Summary on Wikipedia) Genre(s): Science Fiction Language: English Free AudioBooks is an online library of free public domain audiobooks, read by volunteers. Objective is to make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet. Listen to full length audio books online for free on YouTube! #FreeAudioBooks #audiobooks #fiction #CultureAudioBooksLivresAudio #LittératureLivresAudioAudioBooks #greatestaudiobooks
Views: 458 Free AudioBooks
Sapphire
 
26:31
Sapphire is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide . Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum blue, yellow, purple, orange, or a greenish color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield a pink or red tint, the latter being called a ruby. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 145 encyclopediacc
Indium | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indium 00:01:15 1 Properties 00:01:24 1.1 Physical 00:02:58 1.2 Chemical 00:03:41 1.3 Isotopes 00:05:53 2 Compounds 00:07:33 2.1 Indium(III) 00:07:42 2.2 Indium(I) 00:09:08 2.3 Other oxidation states 00:09:38 2.4 Organoindium compounds 00:10:22 3 History 00:10:59 4 Occurrence 00:12:07 5 Production and availability 00:14:29 6 Applications 00:17:15 7 Biological role and precautions 00:20:35 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium was isolated the next year. Indium is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. Indium has no biological role, though its compounds are somewhat toxic when injected into the bloodstream. Most occupational exposure is through ingestion, from which indium compounds are not absorbed well, and inhalation, from which they are moderately absorbed.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Sulfur | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur 00:02:07 1 Characteristics 00:02:17 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:52 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:06 1.3 Allotropes 00:06:17 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:09 1.5 Natural occurrence 00:10:47 2 Compounds 00:11:06 2.1 Sulfur polycations 00:11:50 2.2 Sulfides 00:13:09 2.3 Oxides, oxoacids and oxoanions 00:14:38 2.4 Halides and oxyhalides 00:15:22 2.5 Pnictides 00:16:03 2.6 Metal sulfides 00:16:56 2.7 Organic compounds 00:19:27 3 History 00:19:36 3.1 Antiquity 00:22:05 3.2 Modern times 00:23:58 3.3 Spelling and etymology 00:25:12 4 Production 00:29:14 5 Applications 00:29:23 5.1 Sulfuric acid 00:30:09 5.2 Other important sulfur chemistry 00:31:06 5.3 Fertilizer 00:32:20 5.4 Fine chemicals 00:33:05 5.5 Fungicide and pesticide 00:34:50 5.6 Bactericide in winemaking and food preservation 00:36:04 5.7 Pharmaceuticals 00:36:48 5.7.1 Mechanism of action 00:37:13 5.8 Furniture 00:37:52 6 Biological role 00:38:02 6.1 Protein and organic cofactors 00:40:57 6.2 Metalloproteins and inorganic cofactors 00:41:42 6.3 Sulfur metabolism and the sulfur cycle 00:44:28 7 Precautions 00:46:57 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.
Views: 9 wikipedia tts
Mellon Sawyer Seminar on Displacement | Dams and Displacement - Session 2
 
02:13:09
Skip ahead to main speaker at 2:49 A common thread of the Mellon Sawyer seminar is displacement as formative of power relations of inclusion and exclusion that have shaped global histories and had long term effects on multiple environments and forms of subjectivity. The seminar's second event will focus on the impact of the construction of dams. Large dams represent the most visible ugly face of forced displacement due to development projects by affecting some of the weakest sections of society. By bringing together academics and planners at the same table, this seminar looks at how resettlement of affected groups is planned and what are its long-term socioeconomic implications. This recording includes: Joy A. Bilharz Professor of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, State University of New York College at Fredonia Paper: "It's Still our Home; It's just that we Don't Live Here Anymore: The forced relocation of Allegany Senecas due to the Kinzua dam in Pennsylvania" Heather Randell Postdoctoral Fellow, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), University of Maryland, Annapolis, MD Paper: "Development, Dams, and Displacement in the Amazon: The Case of Brazil's Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex" Moderator: Vikramaditya Thakur Mellow Sawyer Postdoctoral Research Associate, Middle East Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI This series is funded by a generous grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Sulfur | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sulfur 00:02:07 1 Characteristics 00:02:16 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:52 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:05 1.3 Allotropes 00:06:16 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:07 1.5 Natural occurrence 00:10:44 2 Compounds 00:11:03 2.1 Sulfur polycations 00:11:47 2.2 Sulfides 00:13:06 2.3 Oxides, oxoacids and oxoanions 00:14:34 2.4 Halides and oxyhalides 00:15:18 2.5 Pnictides 00:15:59 2.6 Metal sulfides 00:16:53 2.7 Organic compounds 00:19:24 3 History 00:19:33 3.1 Antiquity 00:22:01 3.2 Modern times 00:23:54 3.3 Spelling and etymology 00:25:07 4 Production 00:29:08 5 Applications 00:29:17 5.1 Sulfuric acid 00:30:03 5.2 Other important sulfur chemistry 00:31:00 5.3 Fertilizer 00:32:14 5.4 Fine chemicals 00:32:58 5.5 Fungicide and pesticide 00:34:43 5.6 Bactericide in winemaking and food preservation 00:35:57 5.7 Pharmaceuticals 00:36:41 5.7.1 Mechanism of action 00:37:06 5.8 Furniture 00:37:45 6 Biological role 00:37:55 6.1 Protein and organic cofactors 00:40:50 6.2 Metalloproteins and inorganic cofactors 00:41:34 6.3 Sulfur metabolism and the sulfur cycle 00:44:20 7 Precautions 00:46:49 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.
Views: 41 wikipedia tts
Nitrogen | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article
 
59:17
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Nitrogen | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.
Views: 45 wikipedia tts
Nitrogen | Wikipedia audio article
 
59:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Nitrogen 00:03:20 1 History 00:07:12 2 Properties 00:07:21 2.1 Atomic 00:11:42 2.2 Isotopes 00:16:10 3 Chemistry and compounds 00:16:20 3.1 Allotropes 00:20:36 3.2 Dinitrogen complexes 00:23:35 3.3 Nitrides, azides, and nitrido complexes 00:27:51 3.4 Hydrides 00:31:36 3.5 Halides and oxohalides 00:35:11 3.6 Oxides 00:39:57 3.7 Oxoacids, oxoanions, and oxoacid salts 00:46:00 3.8 Organic nitrogen compounds 00:47:40 4 Occurrence 00:50:29 5 Production 00:51:59 6 Applications 00:52:08 6.1 Gas 00:54:37 6.2 Liquid 00:56:03 7 Safety 00:56:12 7.1 Gas 00:57:45 7.2 Liquid 00:59:25 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds. Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.
Views: 43 wikipedia tts
Metal | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Metal 00:02:50 1 Properties 00:02:59 1.1 Form and structure 00:06:47 1.2 Electrical and thermal 00:08:53 1.3 Chemical 00:09:56 2 Periodic table distribution 00:10:36 3 Alloys 00:12:54 4 Categories 00:13:44 4.1 Ferrous and non-ferrous metals 00:14:13 4.2 Brittle metal 00:14:43 4.3 Refractory metal 00:15:14 4.4 White metal 00:15:51 4.5 Heavy and light metals 00:16:19 4.6 Base, noble and precious metals 00:18:40 5 Lifecycle 00:18:49 5.1 Formation 00:21:10 5.2 Abundance and occurrence 00:23:39 5.3 Extraction 00:25:04 5.4 Uses 00:28:05 5.5 Recycling 00:29:48 6 Biological interactions 00:30:28 7 History 00:30:37 7.1 Prehistory 00:31:31 7.2 Antiquity 00:34:13 7.3 Middle Ages 00:35:46 7.4 The Renaissance 00:38:18 7.5 Light metals 00:40:47 7.6 The age of steel 00:42:17 7.7 The last stable metallic elements 00:44:21 7.8 Post-World War II developments 00:44:30 7.8.1 Superalloys 00:45:17 7.8.2 Transcurium metals 00:46:19 7.8.3 Bulk metallic glasses 00:47:38 7.8.4 Shape-memory alloys 00:48:35 7.8.5 Quasicyrstalline alloys 00:50:39 7.8.6 Complex metallic alloys 00:51:58 7.8.7 High entropy alloys 00:52:40 7.8.8 MAX phase alloys 00:54:14 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets) or ductile (can be drawn into wires). A metal may be a chemical element such as iron, or an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is generally regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine gradually becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure. Equally, some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such). The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.Metals comprise 25% of the Earth's crust and are present in many aspects of modern life. The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks. Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.The history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, silver, iron (as meteoric iron), lead, and brass were likewise in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel; the discovery of sodium—the first light metal—in 1809; the rise of modern alloy steels; and, since the end of World War II, the development of more sophisticated alloys.
Views: 29 wikipedia tts