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Tungsten  - The MOST REFRACTORY Metal ON EARTH!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will tell you about the top refractory metal on Earth – tungsten. Tungsten is one of the transition metals, and is located in group 6 of the periodic table of chemical elements. It got it’s name from the mineral wolframite, from which this mineral is obtained. Also, a tiny fun fact, wolfram is a Swedish word. Now if we look at the appearance, tungsten looks like a shiny metal with gray tint, though if you hold a rod of tungsten in the hand you may experience one special characteristic. The density of tungsten is almost 20 grams per cubic centimeter, which is very close to the density of gold. That is the reason why tungsten was used for faking gold bars. A couple of years ago there was news that some gold bars had a filling of tungsten inside, which of course is significantly cheaper than gold. Though the forgery causes skepticism among some scientists. To clearly demonstrate to you how much is 20 gram per cubic centimeter, I will compare the mass of a rod of tungsten and a rod of magnesium. As you can see, the tungsten rod is not only several times smaller than the magnesium one, but is also even heavier than the latter. Also, tungsten is a fairly brittle metal, it is plastic only when it has a very high purity. In addition, tungsten has the highest tensile strength. However, this is not the main feature of this metal. To melt a piece of tungsten, you need to reach an extremely high temperature of 3422 degrees Celsius. That is why this metal was at first used as the filament in incandescent bulbs. However, if you pass a current through the thin tungsten filament, it can overheat and then break, thereby ceasing any production of light . All is due to the fact that in air tungsten oxidizes at a high temperature, forming on its surface oxides of tungsten. Also, the tungsten rod after calcination with a gas burner obtains beautiful colored stains, caused by the different thickness of the oxide film on the metal surface. However, in light bulbs it’s not really about the beauty, more about the ability to actually produce light, hence all the oxygen from the bulb is pumped out and is replaced with a mixture of nitrogen and argon under reduced pressure. In these circumstances, the filament can shine for quite a long time. Also another fun fact, when taking pictures of the the filament in macro I’ve noticed the difference of the more powerful old light bulbs and the less powerful modern ones. In the old light bulbs the filament is made simply in the form of a spiral, but it turns out the modern ones have a double helix, making the filament thinner, which creates more sections of uneven thickness in the yarn, which then leads to the more rapid failure of the bulb. From a chemical point of view, tungsten is fairly stable, it is not soluble in hydrochloric or sulphuric acids. And the most stable compounds of hexavalent tungsten, such as, for example, the sodium tungstate are used as a catalyst of epoxidation in the organic synthesis, andin manufacturing of pigments. Sodium tungstate is soluble in water, but instead of water I will use the 30% acetic acid to obtain the so-called tungsten blue pigment that has a very intense color. To do this, we’ll add a piece of magnesium to the test-tube. Magnesium reacts with acetic acid, releasing hydrogen, which in turn recovers tungsten from the hexavalent state to tungsten oxide 3 with an admixture of other oxides. The formed particles of oxides are of a small size, allowing them to form colloidal solution of a bright blue or blue-green color. The shade depends mainly on the acidity of the environment. The obtained tungsten blue can be used as a good dye for fabric, paper or other items that have the ability to adsorb particles of tungsten blue. The metal tungsten has a very high hardness and is hardly turned on the grinding wheel. Today tungsten finds many applications. First and foremost, this metal is used in filaments for the halogen lamps, refractory electrodes for argon-arc welding, as well as in hard projectile cores in some military shells. The most common substance of the tungsten compounds is tungsten carbide, which also goes by the name Pobedit but mainly in Russia (which if you translate that to English means “will win”). It is mostly used as a cutter when machining metals or stones because of its high hardness. Quality high hardness steel would almost always be composed of tungsten. So that’s what this metal tungsten is like, which is found in practically every house and has the most interesting and unique properties.
Dissolving Gold in Mercury
 
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Follow me on Instagram: https://goo.gl/5oQiWQ Follow me on Twitter: https://goo.gl/uCmnV4 ----------------------------------------- Okay, so we are not truly dissolving the gold, we are actually forming an alloy between the gold and the mercury (called an amalgam). This process is not only cool to look at, but it also is really useful to extract gold from ore. The gold-mercury amalgam can then be isolated and the mercury is boiled off or removed chemically. This leaves behind relatively pure gold. Outro music: https://soundcloud.com/sorrysines
Views: 1336032 NileRed
Radium - The MOST RADIOACTIVE Metal ON EARTH!
 
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Thanks to my friend Andrey and Musee Curie for the provided footage. https://musee.curie.fr/ Best Patrons: Stan Presolski, reinforcedconcrete, Dean Bailey, Bob Drucker, Pradeep Sekar, Applied Science, Purple Pill, afreeflyingsoul, Alfred Barnat, Sabarish Elango. Full script for the subtitles: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1en_eGdskNazbJoUtzk2I06_6Y4JmsdhZ/view?usp=sharing Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Hi everyone! In this video I am going to tell you about the most radioactive metal on earth that is about radium. Radium is about a million times more radioactive than uranium. However, first let us talk about the discoverer of this metal that is about Marie Skłodowska Curie and her husband Pierre Curie and also about how their discovery of radium affected their health and life.
FASTEST TO A MAGNET: 1, 2 or 3 g osmium?
 
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Does mass matter when element samples are racing towards a magnet in my test for magnetic susceptibility? Let's find out! This video is sponsored by https://brilliant.org/Brainiac75/ One of the D150xH50 mm neodymium magnets was donated by magnetportal.de. You can see the unboxing here: https://youtu.be/yM4Xe2c0B8M Video with platinum group: https://youtu.be/sJ_SIOxMZ9E All my videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/brainiac75/videos FULL MUSIC CREDITS Time code: 0:00 New Planets - New Problems by Triune Films LLC. Royalty-free track bought from triunestore (Triune Scores: Trailer Pack Vol1). Time codes: 0:45 + 7:01 Fluidscape by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1100393 Time codes: 2:39 + 5:18 + 9:03 Perspectives by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1300027 Timecode: 4:34 Monkeys Spinning Monkeys by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1400011 Timecode: 8:15 Peace of Mind by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ISRC: USUAN1200099
Views: 57531 Brainiac75
9. Verification and Validation
 
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MIT 16.842 Fundamentals of Systems Engineering, Fall 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/16-842F15 Instructor: Olivier de Weck The focus of this lecture is design verification and validation. Other concepts including design tesing and technical risk management and flight readiness review are also introduced. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 8834 MIT OpenCourseWare
How to grow beautiful crystals of salt - do your chemical experiment!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Hello everyone, today we'll be growing beautiful single crystals. Crystals can be grown from almost any salt, however, for a better result I suggest using the copper sulfate one. Of course, you may also use an ordinary table salt for growing the crystals. The very first thing you should do before you'll start growing a crystal is to make a growing seed. Seed is a small crystal that is immersed in the solution, and that will grow there. It should be about the size of a pea. At first, lets take a glass and pour there a third or a half of the amount of a salt. Next, pour some hot water into the cup and stir it all. If you've added less, then you'll need to keep adding salt until it's no longer dissolvable. And after the salt is no longer dissolving and the solution become saturated it must now be filtered to get rid of various impurities. After filtration, add to the bottom of the glass a little copper sulfate and leave this glass for a few days to let the crystals form. After a day or so you should find at the bottom of the glass that there's a lot of beautiful crystals has been formed, about the size of a pea. Now we merge the solution into another cup, to pick open interlocked crystal mass. Take any knife or any other sharp tool and drill the crystal mass. Once we've scratched it all, pour everything into a bowl. Choose the smoothest and large crystal. Also, I advise you not to take the copper sulfate with your bare hands, it is better to do it with gloves on. Once we've chosen the largest crystal, it must be now tied to a thread. To do this, I came up with an interesting system in which you can conveniently change the height of the crystal. Also with this system the cup is protected from dust. We hung the crystal to a cup, and now all we do is wait. Growing crystals requires a lot of time and patience. When I was doing it before I was also growing a crystal out of mixture of potassium chloride and sodium chloride in parallel with making the crystal of copper sulfate. If you want to get a very smooth and a beautiful single crystal, you'll need to filter the solution every two weeks to maintain its cleanliness. If the solution is dirty, a crooked crystal will grow and you'll get polycrystal instead of that single crystal we want. Polycrystal is when a lot of crystals fused together. In this video, I will teach you how to grow crystals of salt at home. Growing crystals is very interesting and exciting hobby. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Mod-01 Lec-10 Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Monolayers to Multilayers
 
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Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 817 nptelhrd
Molten Iron Vs. HUGE Magnet
 
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Backyard Scientists T-Shirts! Limited Edition campaign, buy one now! - http://shop.crowdmade.com/collections/backyardscientist/ Have you ever wondered what happens when you bring a magnet near 5000 degree molten Iron? Does it attract? Or repel? Maybe it create cool shapes. But most importantly... DOES IT EXPLODE?! I set off thermite over a very large and expensive magnet to finally find out for myself what happens when molten metal meets a magnet. I learned that molten iron is not responsive to a magnetic field until it falls below 1400 fahrenheit, the curie temperature. By then it's solid! PS Check out my video on GoPro's channel! ↳https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMy4S... Add me on Facebook & Twiter ↳https://www.facebook.com/TheBackyardS... ↳https://twitter.com/ChemicalKevy
Views: 5020636 TheBackyardScientist
24) Native Element Minerals Pt. 1
 
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Precious metals are our topic today, and copper. We take a close look at the native element metal minerals: copper, silver, gold, platinum and palladium.
Views: 4394 CVshorey
Rocks to gold part 3: Smelting the concentrates to a gold button
 
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In our final installment of our series Rock to Gold we take our gold rich concentrates and smelt them into a small gold button. By weighing the gold button we determine the troy ounces/grams per ton of the original rock. This was a fun video to make and I hope you guys enjoyed it. Please leave your comments and questions. Thanks
Views: 32992 mbmmllc
Mod-01 Lec-40 Perceptions & Projections
 
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Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 1278 nptelhrd
MIT Professor Walter Lewi's Physics 801 Lecture 31
 
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Topics covered: Systems consisting of pendulums and springs can freely oscillate at their natural frequencies (also called normal modes). When we expose a system to a wide spectrum of frequencies, the response will be very large at the normal mode frequencies (resonances) of that system. Examples include musical instruments (standing waves on violin strings and pressure waves in wind instruments), and torsional standing waves on a bridge driven by strong winds.
Views: 4867 Chang Barrick
BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO NO MAN'S SKY - PART I: LEAVING THE PLANET
 
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Welcome all new players to No Man's Sky, here is a overly verbose guide that will give you all of the information you may need and more when starting your first game in No Man's Sky, it will also help those returning players who haven't played since 1.0 get back to grips with everything in the game. Click here to Support Xaine's World on Patreon and get all non-live videos early! http://www.patreon.com/xainesworld/ Helpful Videos for Beginner's & Veterans alike: • Exosuit Guide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOM0VOapS9A • Trading Guide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MUl8GMuRno • Farming Guide: Beginner https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCQRKb1iSYk • Farming Guide: Intermediate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbooVtuiydA • Farming Guide Advanced https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYuhipEkpbw • Living Glass Farm Build https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-8cAAxzDSc • Circuit Board Farm Build https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6czmQJDOYa0 • Stasis Device Farm Build Guide https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsguides/stasis-device-farm • Gas Cooperative https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJDNggYXaz4 • Prepare for What Comes NEXT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_L0GEJMepU • S Class Experimental Multitool https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0NumwQcWRM • S Class Fighter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=py2t2B5Aqa8 • S Class Hauler https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCKJ2qS44lQ • S Class Freighter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zZdaKp3F48 Helpful Tools: • Farmers Market https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsfarmersmarket/ • Shopping List Calculator https://www.xainesworld.com/nmsshoppingcalc/ • Rare Resource Portal List (2 Glyphs - Euclid) https://www.xainesworld.com/rareresources/ • Technology Resource Calculator https://www.xainesworld.com/nmstechcalc/ • Ket's Layout Editor https://ket.github.io/NMS-SlotLayout/index.html? Timestamps: 3:33 Scanning 5:56 Crafting & Inventory 9:10 Hazard Protection & Life Support 12:18 Fixing Your Ship PLEASE DO NOT CLAIM A BASE ON THESE PLANETS OR EVEN IN THE SAME SYSTEM! Doing so will prevent all travellers from harvesting from that base. Useful Farm Bases (Euclid): • My Home Planet Stasis Device Farm (Also great for Marrow Bulb farming) - 3-1-4-2-1-4-6-6-6-13-5-13 • Xenaslave's 2 Glyph Slow Grow Farm (Solanium & Cactus Flesh) - 2-1-2-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-1 • Xenaslave's Main Farm (5x LE, 5x CB, 5x LG) - 4-1-8-10-16-15-5-3-9-5-14-15 • Uncommon+ Resources Planet (One for the Marrow Bulb) - 2-2-2-2-2-1-1-1-1-1-2-2 • Special Christmassy Base! - 2-1-6-1-1-4-6-6-7-13-5-14 / 044C:0082:0D55:0050 • 14x Heat Capacitor & 22x Lubricant Farm Address - 4-1-11-5-1-5-6-6-6-13-5-14 / 044C:0083:0D54:00A4 • 28x Acid Farm Address - 2-1-6-9-1-3-6-6-9-13-5-14 / 044C:0081:0D57:0058 • 25x Living Glass Farm Address - 4-1-6-9-1-5-6-6-7-13-5-14 / 044C:0083:0D55:0058 • 20x Circuit Board Farm Address - 2-2-5-2-1-3-6-6-8-13-5-13 / 044B:0081:0D56:0141 Schedule: Monday - Video -- 8pm GMT/1pm PST Tuesday - Mass Effect Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Wednesday - Video -- 8pm GMT/1pm PST Thursday - Fallout: New Vegas Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Friday - N/A Saturday - N/A Sunday - NMS Permadeath Stream -- 5pm GMT/10am PST Check me out on: • https://www.patreon.com/xainesworld • https://www.facebook.com/xainesworld • https://www.twitch.tv/xainekhlorik • https://twitter.com/XainesWorld • https://www.instagram.com/xainesworld Music (In Order): • Silent Partner - Magic Marker • Frakture - Hindsight • FREI - Moody • Nomyn - Daydreamer • Dylan Thomas - One Musician's Social Media & More: • Frakture https://soundcloud.com/fraktureuk https://twitter.com/fraktureuk https://www.youtube.com/user/fraktureuk • FREI http://fanlink.to/qvR https://facebook.com/Frei-15293252858... https://soundcloud.com/frejandersen • Nomyn https://soundcloud.com/nomyn https://facebook.com/NomynMusic https://youtube.com/channel/UCf1rozse... ●Dylan Thomas - One [Outertone Free Release] ●Song/Free Download - https://youtu.be/C138QYgL2zQ ●Support Dylan Thomas - http://smarturl.it/out-dt-one heroboard – free music to free your mind » Instagram: https://instagram.com/heroboard » Discord: https://discord.gg/CbYaj29 » Instagram: http://instagram.com/heroboard Bass Rebels ●Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/BassRebels ●Twitter - https://twitter.com/BassRebels ●Soundcloud - https://soundcloud.com/bassrebels ●Twitch - https://www.twitch.tv/bassrebels ●Hitbox - http://www.hitbox.tv/bassrebels ●Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/bassrebelsm...
Views: 39637 Xaine's World
2014 Killian Lecture: Stephen J. Lippard, "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs"
 
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Lecture title: "Understanding and Improving Platinum Anticancer Drugs" Stephen Lippard, the Arthur Amos Noyes professor in the Department of Chemistry, was MIT’s James R. Killian Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2013–2014. Professor Lippard has spent his career studying the role of inorganic molecules, especially metal ions and their complexes, in critical processes of biological systems. He has made pioneering contributions in understanding the mechanism of the cancer drug cisplatin and in designing new variants to combat drug resistance and side effects. Tuesday, April 1, 2014 Huntington Hall (10-250)
Miranda Lambert - Keeper of the Flame
 
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Listen to “Keeper of the Flame” on ‘The Weight of These Wings,’ available now: iTunes: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW/itunes?IQid=youtube Apple Music: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW/applemusic?IQid=youtube Spotify: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW/spotify?IQid=youtube Amazon: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW/amazon?IQid=youtube Google Play: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW/googleplay?IQid=youtube All Retailers: http://smarturl.it/ML-TWOTW?IQid=youtube Sign up to receive email updates from Miranda Lambert: http://mirandalmbrt.co/updatesYT See Miranda LIVE on The Bandwagon Tour: https://www.mirandalambert.com/tour/
Views: 990297 mirandalambertVEVO
Mod-01 Lec-22 Magnetic materials I
 
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Chemistry of Materials by Prof.S.Sundar Manoharan,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 13357 nptelhrd
Mellon Sawyer Seminar on Displacement | Dams and Displacement - Session 2
 
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Skip ahead to main speaker at 2:49 A common thread of the Mellon Sawyer seminar is displacement as formative of power relations of inclusion and exclusion that have shaped global histories and had long term effects on multiple environments and forms of subjectivity. The seminar's second event will focus on the impact of the construction of dams. Large dams represent the most visible ugly face of forced displacement due to development projects by affecting some of the weakest sections of society. By bringing together academics and planners at the same table, this seminar looks at how resettlement of affected groups is planned and what are its long-term socioeconomic implications. This recording includes: Joy A. Bilharz Professor of Anthropology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, State University of New York College at Fredonia Paper: "It's Still our Home; It's just that we Don't Live Here Anymore: The forced relocation of Allegany Senecas due to the Kinzua dam in Pennsylvania" Heather Randell Postdoctoral Fellow, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), University of Maryland, Annapolis, MD Paper: "Development, Dams, and Displacement in the Amazon: The Case of Brazil's Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex" Moderator: Vikramaditya Thakur Mellow Sawyer Postdoctoral Research Associate, Middle East Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI This series is funded by a generous grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Pariah Planet by Murray Leinster, read by Mark Nelson, complete unabridged audiobook
 
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Unabridged audio book - Genre(s): Action & Adventure Fiction, General Fiction, Science Fiction Pariah Planet Murray Leinster (1896 - 1975) Read by Mark Nelson When the blue plague appeared on the planet of Dara, fear struck nearby worlds. The fear led to a hate that threatened the lives of millions and endangered the Galactic peace. But the Med Service ship Aesculapius 20 with Calhoun and Murgatroyd the Tormal aboard are on the job and have stumbled into the horrible mess caused by unreasoning hatred, quarantine, mass starvation and worse. Calhoun must use all his medical knowledge and significant skills to even understand the situation here in neglected Sector 12. Can he and Murgatroyd untangle this Gordian's knot and live to tell the tale? Maybe and maybe not. Listen and find out. 00:00:00 Chapter 1 00:32:36 Chapter 2 01:00:34 Chapter 3 01:27:14 Chapter 4 01:56:21 Chapter 5 02:31:06 Chapter 6 03:03:04 Chapter 7 03:35:39 Chapter 8 Total running time 03:58:58 Murray Leinster playlist -» http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLG03REJaYO-mSxPZUv5X4NfCqJJziM0U Audio Recording © courtesy of Librivox This video: © Copyright 2013. PublicAudioLibrary. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 9811 PublicAudioLibrary
Space Platform by Murray Leinster, read by Mark Nelson, complete unabridged audiobook
 
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Unabridged audio book - Genre(s): Action & Adventure Fiction, Fantastic Fiction, Science Fiction Space Platform By Murray Leinster (1896 - 1975) SPACE PLATFORM tells the exciting story of a young man helping to build this first station. With scientific accuracy and imagination Murray Leinster, one of the world's top science-fiction writers, describes the building and launching of the platform. Here is a fast-paced story of sabotage and murder directed against a project more secret and valuable than the atom bomb! - Summary by Gutenberg text Read by: Mark Nelson Book Coordinator: Mark Nelson Meta Coordinator: Bev J. Stevens Proof Listener: DaveC 00:00:00 Chapter 1 00:30:13 Chapter 2 00:56:41 Chapter 3 01:29:55 Chapter 4 01:48:45 Chapter 5 02:19:52 Chapter 6 02:50:53 Chapter 7 03:20:55 Chapter 8 03:49:39 Chapter 9 04:26:25 Chapter 10 04:57:25 Chapter 11 05:27:39 Chapter 12 05:51:33 Chapter 13 Running Time: 06:17:02 Murray Leinster playlist -» http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLG03REJaYO-mSxPZUv5X4NfCqJJziM0U Audio Recording © courtesy of Librivox This video: © Copyright 2013. PublicAudioLibrary. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 19294 PublicAudioLibrary
First Lensman by E. E. "Doc" Smith
 
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The Secret Planet. No human had ever landed on the hidden planet of Arisia. A mysterious space barrier turned back both men and ships. Then the word came to Earth, "Go to Arisia!", Virgil Samms of the Galactic Patrol went--and came back with the Lens, the strange device that gave its wearer powers no man had ever possessed before. Samms knew the price of that power would be high. But even he had no idea of the ultimate cost, and the weird destiny waiting for the First Lensman. Chapter 01 - 00:00 Chapter 02 - 26:33 Chapter 03 - 53:59 Chapter 04 - 1:35:51 Chapter 05 - 2:10:29 Chapter 06 - 2:40:32 Chapter 07 - 3:15:50 Chapter 08 - 3:57:20 Chapter 09 - 4:32:16 Chapter 10 - 5:11:01 Chapter 11 - 5:39:49 Chapter 12 - 6:07:00 Chapter 13 - 6:36:42 Chapter 14 - 7:19:25 Chapter 15 - 7:54:03 Chapter 16 - 8:27:32 Chapter 17 - 8:59:09 Chapter 18 - 9:27:21 Chapter 19 - 10:00:35 Chapter 20 - 10:34:30 Epilogue - 10:57:51 This is preceded by "Triplanetary": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCopS8Yfnko This is followed by "Galactic Patrol". Read by: Mark Nelson (https://librivox.org/reader/251)
Views: 9436 Audiobooks Unleashed
Atoms From Space: the use and abuse of satellite imagery
 
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Google Tech Talks March 5, 2007 ABSTRACT Google has one of the largest aerial/satellite image collections in the world, but there's more to find in all that data than just a picture of your house. The same data that goes into Google Earth can tell you more about your environment than a Star Trek tricorder, if you know where to look. Come learn about "Remote Sensing": how to make quantitative use of satellite and aerial data, whether it's visible imagery or something more exotic. Compute cloud cover over Cleveland. Determine deforestation in Denali. Prove that your neighbor's pissing in your pool. Whether you're across the street or across the solar system, if you can't touch it, it's all about...
Views: 10504 Google
Characterization of Nano-coatings
 
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Characterization of Nano coatings
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:52
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead 00:02:19 1 Physical properties 00:02:29 1.1 Atomic 00:04:37 1.2 Bulk 00:07:16 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:22 2 Chemistry 00:12:29 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:14:06 2.1.1 Lead(II) 00:16:42 2.1.2 Lead(IV) 00:17:54 2.1.3 Other oxidation states 00:19:41 2.2 Organolead 00:21:42 3 Origin and occurrence 00:21:52 3.1 In space 00:24:39 3.2 On Earth 00:26:21 4 Etymology 00:27:41 5 History 00:27:50 5.1 Prehistory and early history 00:28:59 5.2 Classical era 00:31:40 5.2.1 Confusion with tin and antimony 00:32:38 5.3 Middle Ages and the Renaissance 00:35:02 5.4 European age of discovery 00:35:33 5.5 Industrial Revolution 00:37:01 5.6 Modern era 00:39:23 6 Production 00:41:04 6.1 Primary 00:41:57 6.1.1 Two-stage process 00:44:02 6.1.2 Direct process 00:44:59 6.1.3 Alternatives 00:45:35 6.2 Secondary 00:46:52 7 Applications 00:47:17 7.1 Elemental form 00:51:23 7.2 Compounds 00:52:52 8 Biological effects 00:53:36 8.1 Toxicity 00:54:31 8.2 Effects 00:56:21 8.3 Exposure sources 00:58:46 8.4 Treatment 00:59:20 9 Environmental effects 01:01:42 10 Restriction and remediation 01:04:29 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
Views: 14 wikipedia tts
Uranium | Wikipedia audio article
 
56:40
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium 00:04:09 1 Characteristics 00:06:48 2 Applications 00:07:21 2.1 Military 00:07:49 2.2 Civilian 00:07:54 3 History 00:08:04 3.1 Pre-discovery use 00:10:35 3.2 Discovery 00:13:41 3.3 Fission research 00:13:50 3.4 Nuclear weaponry 00:14:38 3.5 Reactors 00:16:10 3.6 Prehistoric naturally occurring fission 00:18:55 3.7 Contamination and the Cold War legacy 00:20:04 4 Occurrence 00:21:38 4.1 Origin 00:22:34 4.2 Biotic and abiotic 00:24:59 4.3 Production and mining 00:25:08 4.4 Resources and reserves 00:26:41 4.5 Supplies 00:30:31 5 Compounds 00:32:31 5.1 Oxidation states and oxides 00:34:41 5.1.1 Oxides 00:36:25 5.1.2 Aqueous chemistry 00:36:34 5.1.3 Carbonates 00:36:44 5.1.4 Effects of pH 00:38:34 5.2 Hydrides, carbides and nitrides 00:39:52 5.3 Halides 00:40:30 6 Isotopes 00:41:14 6.1 Natural concentrations 00:42:53 6.2 Enrichment 00:45:09 7 Human exposure 00:45:18 7.1 Effects and precautions 00:49:23 8 See also 00:52:08 9 Notes 00:54:29 10 References 00:56:26 11 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons and accounts for over 99%) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons). Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.In nature, uranium is found as uranium-238 (99.2739–99.2752%), uranium-235 (0.7198–0.7202%), and a very small amount of uranium-234 (0.0050–0.0059%). Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 million years, making them useful in dating the age of the Earth. Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. However, because of the tiny amounts found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is also important in nuclear technology. Uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons; uranium-235 and to a lesser degree uranium-233 have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (238U) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating. Uranium is used as a colorant in uranium glass, producing lemon yellow to green colors. Uranium glass fluoresces green in ultraviolet light. It was also used for tinting and shading in early photography. The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the recently discovered planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Bec ...
Views: 23 wikipedia tts
Radium
 
23:16
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. The color of pure radium is almost pure white, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, becoming black in color. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas. When radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence. Radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie in 1898. They extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the French Academy of Sciences five days later. Radium was isolated in its metallic state by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1910. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 4604 Audiopedia
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids on the Periodic Table
 
01:29
A description and practice of finding metals, nonmetals, and metalloids on the Periodic Table. In general metals are found on the left-hand side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are found on the right-hand side. Between them are the metalloids. Note that Hydrogen (H) is an exception. It is a nonmetal but is found on the left-hand side of the Periodic Table. This is because it has one valence electrons in its outer shell like the other elements in Group 1, but it has physical and chemical characteristics of nonmetals.
Views: 110874 Wayne Breslyn
Indium | Wikipedia audio article
 
21:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indium 00:01:15 1 Properties 00:01:24 1.1 Physical 00:02:58 1.2 Chemical 00:03:41 1.3 Isotopes 00:05:53 2 Compounds 00:07:33 2.1 Indium(III) 00:07:42 2.2 Indium(I) 00:09:08 2.3 Other oxidation states 00:09:38 2.4 Organoindium compounds 00:10:22 3 History 00:10:59 4 Occurrence 00:12:07 5 Production and availability 00:14:29 6 Applications 00:17:15 7 Biological role and precautions 00:20:35 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium was isolated the next year. Indium is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. Indium has no biological role, though its compounds are somewhat toxic when injected into the bloodstream. Most occupational exposure is through ingestion, from which indium compounds are not absorbed well, and inhalation, from which they are moderately absorbed.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Neptunium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:16:42
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Neptunium 00:01:45 1 Characteristics 00:01:54 1.1 Physical 00:05:17 1.1.1 Alloys 00:06:45 1.2 Chemical 00:07:25 1.3 Atomic 00:08:52 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:19 1.5 Occurrence 00:17:17 2 History 00:17:26 2.1 Background and early claims 00:25:28 2.2 Discovery 00:30:45 2.3 Subsequent developments 00:33:01 3 Production 00:33:10 3.1 Synthesis 00:37:35 3.2 Purification methods 00:39:10 4 Chemistry and compounds 00:39:19 4.1 Solution chemistry 00:43:40 4.2 Hydroxides 00:45:35 4.3 Oxides 00:48:28 4.4 Halides 00:50:16 4.5 Chalcogenides, pnictides, and carbides 00:54:24 4.6 Other inorganic 01:01:00 4.7 Organometallic 01:02:42 4.8 Coordination complexes 01:04:34 4.8.1 Solid state 01:04:56 4.8.2 In aqueous solution 01:05:06 5 Applications 01:05:29 5.1 Precursor in plutonium production 01:05:38 5.2 Weapons 01:08:30 5.3 Physics 01:08:39 6 Role in nuclear waste 01:10:59 7 Biological role and precautions 01:11:17 8 References 01:11:26 9 Bibliography 01:13:12 10 Literature 01:14:38 11 External links 01:14:54 undefined 01:16:04 undefined Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element occurs in three allotropic forms and it normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7. It is radioactive, poisonous, pyrophoric, and can accumulate in bones, which makes the handling of neptunium dangerous. Although many false claims of its discovery were made over the years, the element was first synthesized by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory in 1940. Since then, most neptunium has been and still is produced by neutron irradiation of uranium in nuclear reactors. The vast majority is generated as a by-product in conventional nuclear power reactors. While neptunium itself has no commercial uses at present, it is used as a precursor for the formation of plutonium-238, used in radioisotope thermal generators to provide electricity for spacecraft. Neptunium has also been used in detectors of high-energy neutrons. The most stable isotope of neptunium, neptunium-237, is a by-product of nuclear reactors and plutonium production. It, and the isotope neptunium-239, are also found in trace amounts in uranium ores due to neutron capture reactions and beta decay.
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Iridium | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iridium 00:02:39 1 Characteristics 00:02:48 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:35 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:05 1.3 Compounds 00:09:58 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:17 2 History 00:12:26 2.1 Platinum group 00:13:08 2.2 Discovery 00:14:44 2.3 Metalworking and applications 00:17:06 3 Occurrence 00:19:42 3.1 Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary presence 00:20:46 4 Production 00:22:56 5 Applications 00:23:50 5.1 Industrial and medical 00:26:33 5.2 Scientific 00:29:04 5.3 Historical 00:30:25 6 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest metal (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. However at room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3, 0.04 g/cm3 higher than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named iridium for the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium, as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two. The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust. For this reason, the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 66 million years ago. Similarly, an iridium anomaly in core samples from the Pacific Ocean suggested the Eltanin impact of about 2.5 million years ago. It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum-group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Iridium | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:52
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Iridium 00:02:39 1 Characteristics 00:02:48 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:34 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:04 1.3 Compounds 00:09:56 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:14 2 History 00:12:23 2.1 Platinum group 00:13:05 2.2 Discovery 00:14:42 2.3 Metalworking and applications 00:17:03 3 Occurrence 00:19:39 3.1 Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary presence 00:20:42 4 Production 00:22:52 5 Applications 00:23:46 5.1 Industrial and medical 00:26:28 5.2 Scientific 00:28:59 5.3 Historical 00:30:20 6 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77. A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is the second-densest element (after osmium) with a density of 22.56 g/cm3 as defined by experimental X-ray crystallography. However at room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3, 0.04 g/cm3 higher than osmium measured the same way. It is the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable. Iridium was discovered in 1803 among insoluble impurities in natural platinum. Smithson Tennant, the primary discoverer, named iridium for the Greek goddess Iris, personification of the rainbow, because of the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only three tonnes. 191Ir and 193Ir are the only two naturally occurring isotopes of iridium, as well as the only stable isotopes; the latter is the more abundant of the two. The most important iridium compounds in use are the salts and acids it forms with chlorine, though iridium also forms a number of organometallic compounds used in industrial catalysis, and in research. Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites in much higher abundance than in the Earth's crust. For this reason, the unusually high abundance of iridium in the clay layer at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary gave rise to the Alvarez hypothesis that the impact of a massive extraterrestrial object caused the extinction of dinosaurs and many other species 66 million years ago. Similarly, an iridium anomaly in core samples from the Pacific Ocean suggested the Eltanin impact of about 2.5 million years ago. It is thought that the total amount of iridium in the planet Earth is much higher than that observed in crustal rocks, but as with other platinum-group metals, the high density and tendency of iridium to bond with iron caused most iridium to descend below the crust when the planet was young and still molten.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lead 00:02:20 1 Physical properties 00:02:29 1.1 Atomic 00:04:37 1.2 Bulk 00:07:15 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:18 2 Chemistry 00:12:25 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:14:02 2.1.1 Lead(II) 00:16:38 2.1.2 Lead(IV) 00:17:51 2.1.3 Other oxidation states 00:19:37 2.2 Organolead 00:21:38 3 Origin and occurrence 00:21:48 3.1 In space 00:24:35 3.2 On Earth 00:26:16 4 Etymology 00:27:35 5 History 00:27:44 5.1 Prehistory and early history 00:28:52 5.2 Classical era 00:31:31 5.2.1 Confusion with tin and antimony 00:32:30 5.3 Middle Ages and the Renaissance 00:34:40 5.4 Outside Europe and Asia 00:35:22 5.5 Industrial Revolution 00:36:50 5.6 Modern era 00:39:11 6 Production 00:40:51 6.1 Primary 00:41:44 6.1.1 Two-stage process 00:43:42 6.1.2 Direct process 00:44:39 6.1.3 Alternatives 00:45:11 6.2 Secondary 00:46:24 7 Applications 00:46:49 7.1 Elemental form 00:50:55 7.2 Compounds 00:52:23 8 Biological effects 00:53:07 8.1 Toxicity 00:54:02 8.2 Effects 00:55:52 8.3 Exposure sources 00:58:17 8.4 Treatment 00:58:51 9 Environmental effects 01:01:13 10 Restriction and remediation 01:03:52 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lead Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
Views: 37 wikipedia tts
Neptunium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:17:16
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neptunium 00:01:46 1 Characteristics 00:01:55 1.1 Physical 00:05:19 1.1.1 Alloys 00:06:47 1.2 Chemical 00:07:27 1.3 Atomic 00:08:55 1.4 Isotopes 00:12:24 1.5 Occurrence 00:17:24 2 History 00:17:33 2.1 Background and early claims 00:25:37 2.2 Discovery 00:30:57 2.3 Subsequent developments 00:33:14 3 Production 00:33:23 3.1 Synthesis 00:37:51 3.2 Purification methods 00:39:26 4 Chemistry and compounds 00:39:36 4.1 Solution chemistry 00:43:58 4.2 Hydroxides 00:45:54 4.3 Oxides 00:48:47 4.4 Halides 00:50:36 4.5 Chalcogenides, pnictides, and carbides 00:54:45 4.6 Other inorganic 01:01:24 4.7 Organometallic 01:03:06 4.8 Coordination complexes 01:04:59 4.8.1 Solid state 01:05:21 4.8.2 In aqueous solution 01:05:31 5 Applications 01:05:54 5.1 Precursor in plutonium production 01:06:03 5.2 Weapons 01:08:59 5.3 Physics 01:09:08 6 Role in nuclear waste 01:11:29 7 Biological role and precautions 01:11:47 8 References 01:11:57 9 Bibliography 01:13:44 10 Literature 01:15:10 11 External links 01:15:26 Role in nuclear waste 01:16:37 Biological role and precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element occurs in three allotropic forms and it normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7. It is radioactive, poisonous, pyrophoric, and can accumulate in bones, which makes the handling of neptunium dangerous. Although many false claims of its discovery were made over the years, the element was first synthesized by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory in 1940. Since then, most neptunium has been and still is produced by neutron irradiation of uranium in nuclear reactors. The vast majority is generated as a by-product in conventional nuclear power reactors. While neptunium itself has no commercial uses at present, it is used as a precursor for the formation of plutonium-238, used in radioisotope thermal generators to provide electricity for spacecraft. Neptunium has also been used in detectors of high-energy neutrons. The most stable isotope of neptunium, neptunium-237, is a by-product of nuclear reactors and plutonium production. It, and the isotope neptunium-239, are also found in trace amounts in uranium ores due to neutron capture reactions and beta decay.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Sapphire
 
25:16
Sapphire (Greek: σάπφειρος; sappheiros, 'blue stone', which probably referred instead at the time to lapis lazuli) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3). Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum blue, yellow, purple, orange, or a greenish color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield a pink or red tint, the latter being called a ruby. Commonly, sapphires are worn in jewelry. Sapphires may be found naturally, by searching through certain sediments (due to their resistance to being eroded compared to softer stones) or rock formations. They also may be manufactured for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires—9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, right behind diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.25)—and of aluminium oxide in general, sapphires are used in some non-ornamental applications, including infrared optical components, such as in scientific instruments; high-durability windows; wristwatch crystals and movement bearings; and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of very special-purpose solid-state electronics (especially integrated circuits and GaN-based LEDs). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 135 Audiopedia
Petroleum
 
52:20
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from Latin petra rock(see petrous) + Latin: oleum oil (see oil (n.)). ) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to intense heat and pressure. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 90 million barrels each day. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 461 Audiopedia
Metal | Wikipedia audio article
 
54:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Metal 00:02:50 1 Properties 00:02:59 1.1 Form and structure 00:06:47 1.2 Electrical and thermal 00:08:53 1.3 Chemical 00:09:56 2 Periodic table distribution 00:10:36 3 Alloys 00:12:54 4 Categories 00:13:44 4.1 Ferrous and non-ferrous metals 00:14:13 4.2 Brittle metal 00:14:43 4.3 Refractory metal 00:15:14 4.4 White metal 00:15:51 4.5 Heavy and light metals 00:16:19 4.6 Base, noble and precious metals 00:18:40 5 Lifecycle 00:18:49 5.1 Formation 00:21:10 5.2 Abundance and occurrence 00:23:39 5.3 Extraction 00:25:04 5.4 Uses 00:28:05 5.5 Recycling 00:29:48 6 Biological interactions 00:30:28 7 History 00:30:37 7.1 Prehistory 00:31:31 7.2 Antiquity 00:34:13 7.3 Middle Ages 00:35:46 7.4 The Renaissance 00:38:18 7.5 Light metals 00:40:47 7.6 The age of steel 00:42:17 7.7 The last stable metallic elements 00:44:21 7.8 Post-World War II developments 00:44:30 7.8.1 Superalloys 00:45:17 7.8.2 Transcurium metals 00:46:19 7.8.3 Bulk metallic glasses 00:47:38 7.8.4 Shape-memory alloys 00:48:35 7.8.5 Quasicyrstalline alloys 00:50:39 7.8.6 Complex metallic alloys 00:51:58 7.8.7 High entropy alloys 00:52:40 7.8.8 MAX phase alloys 00:54:14 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets) or ductile (can be drawn into wires). A metal may be a chemical element such as iron, or an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is generally regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine gradually becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure. Equally, some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such). The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.Metals comprise 25% of the Earth's crust and are present in many aspects of modern life. The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks. Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.The history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, silver, iron (as meteoric iron), lead, and brass were likewise in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel; the discovery of sodium—the first light metal—in 1809; the rise of modern alloy steels; and, since the end of World War II, the development of more sophisticated alloys.
Views: 23 wikipedia tts
Fluorine | Wikipedia audio article
 
51:53
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Fluorine 00:02:18 1 Characteristics 00:02:27 1.1 Electron configuration 00:02:56 1.2 Reactivity 00:03:30 1.3 Phases 00:06:11 1.4 Isotopes 00:07:24 2 Occurrence 00:08:34 2.1 Universe 00:08:43 2.2 Earth 00:09:43 3 History 00:11:37 3.1 Early discoveries 00:11:45 3.2 Isolation 00:13:16 3.3 Later uses 00:14:55 4 Compounds 00:16:22 4.1 Metals 00:16:53 4.2 Hydrogen 00:18:12 4.3 Other reactive nonmetals 00:18:57 4.4 Noble gases 00:20:42 4.5 Organic compounds 00:21:37 4.5.1 Discrete molecules 00:22:07 4.5.2 Polymers 00:23:15 5 Production 00:24:17 5.1 Industrial 00:24:26 5.2 Chemical 00:25:47 6 Industrial applications 00:26:54 6.1 Inorganic fluorides 00:29:34 6.2 Organic fluorides 00:30:45 6.2.1 Refrigerant gases 00:31:43 6.2.2 Polymers 00:32:58 6.2.3 Surfactants 00:35:12 6.2.4 Agrichemicals 00:35:57 7 Medicinal applications 00:37:09 7.1 Dental care 00:37:19 7.2 Pharmaceuticals 00:38:48 7.3 PET scanning 00:40:39 7.4 Oxygen carriers 00:41:14 8 Biological role 00:42:23 9 Toxicity 00:43:17 9.1 Hydrofluoric acid 00:44:01 9.2 Fluoride ion 00:45:39 10 Environmental concerns 00:47:26 10.1 Atmosphere 00:47:35 10.2 Biopersistence 00:49:14 11 See also 00:50:33 12 Notes 00:51:03 13 Sources 00:51:11 13.1 Citations 00:51:20 13.2 Indexed references 00:51:29 14 External links 00:51:38 undefined Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with almost all other elements, except for helium and neon. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
Views: 24 wikipedia tts
Sulfur | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur 00:02:07 1 Characteristics 00:02:17 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:52 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:06 1.3 Allotropes 00:06:17 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:09 1.5 Natural occurrence 00:10:47 2 Compounds 00:11:06 2.1 Sulfur polycations 00:11:50 2.2 Sulfides 00:13:09 2.3 Oxides, oxoacids and oxoanions 00:14:38 2.4 Halides and oxyhalides 00:15:22 2.5 Pnictides 00:16:03 2.6 Metal sulfides 00:16:56 2.7 Organic compounds 00:19:27 3 History 00:19:36 3.1 Antiquity 00:22:05 3.2 Modern times 00:23:58 3.3 Spelling and etymology 00:25:12 4 Production 00:29:14 5 Applications 00:29:23 5.1 Sulfuric acid 00:30:09 5.2 Other important sulfur chemistry 00:31:06 5.3 Fertilizer 00:32:20 5.4 Fine chemicals 00:33:05 5.5 Fungicide and pesticide 00:34:50 5.6 Bactericide in winemaking and food preservation 00:36:04 5.7 Pharmaceuticals 00:36:48 5.7.1 Mechanism of action 00:37:13 5.8 Furniture 00:37:52 6 Biological role 00:38:02 6.1 Protein and organic cofactors 00:40:57 6.2 Metalloproteins and inorganic cofactors 00:41:42 6.3 Sulfur metabolism and the sulfur cycle 00:44:28 7 Precautions 00:46:57 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Sapphire
 
26:31
Sapphire is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide . Trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum blue, yellow, purple, orange, or a greenish color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield a pink or red tint, the latter being called a ruby. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 143 encyclopediacc
Sulfur | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sulfur 00:02:07 1 Characteristics 00:02:16 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:52 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:05 1.3 Allotropes 00:06:17 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:07 1.5 Natural occurrence 00:10:44 2 Compounds 00:11:04 2.1 Sulfur polycations 00:11:47 2.2 Sulfides 00:13:06 2.3 Oxides, oxoacids and oxoanions 00:14:34 2.4 Halides and oxyhalides 00:15:18 2.5 Pnictides 00:16:00 2.6 Metal sulfides 00:16:53 2.7 Organic compounds 00:19:24 3 History 00:19:33 3.1 Antiquity 00:22:01 3.2 Modern times 00:23:54 3.3 Spelling and etymology 00:25:08 4 Production 00:29:08 5 Applications 00:29:17 5.1 Sulfuric acid 00:30:03 5.2 Other important sulfur chemistry 00:31:00 5.3 Fertilizer 00:32:14 5.4 Fine chemicals 00:32:58 5.5 Fungicide and pesticide 00:34:43 5.6 Bactericide in winemaking and food preservation 00:35:58 5.7 Pharmaceuticals 00:36:41 5.7.1 Mechanism of action 00:37:06 5.8 Furniture 00:37:46 6 Biological role 00:37:55 6.1 Protein and organic cofactors 00:40:50 6.2 Metalloproteins and inorganic cofactors 00:41:35 6.3 Sulfur metabolism and the sulfur cycle 00:44:21 7 Precautions 00:46:50 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
Metal | Wikipedia audio article
 
54:38
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal 00:02:50 1 Properties 00:02:59 1.1 Form and structure 00:06:48 1.2 Electrical and thermal 00:08:54 1.3 Chemical 00:09:57 2 Periodic table distribution 00:10:38 3 Alloys 00:12:56 4 Categories 00:13:46 4.1 Ferrous and non-ferrous metals 00:14:16 4.2 Brittle metal 00:14:45 4.3 Refractory metal 00:15:17 4.4 White metal 00:15:54 4.5 Heavy and light metals 00:16:22 4.6 Base, noble and precious metals 00:18:44 5 Lifecycle 00:18:53 5.1 Formation 00:21:14 5.2 Abundance and occurrence 00:23:44 5.3 Extraction 00:25:09 5.4 Uses 00:28:11 5.5 Recycling 00:29:54 6 Biological interactions 00:30:34 7 History 00:30:43 7.1 Prehistory 00:31:36 7.2 Antiquity 00:34:20 7.3 Middle Ages 00:35:53 7.4 The Renaissance 00:38:25 7.5 Light metals 00:40:55 7.6 The age of steel 00:42:25 7.7 The last stable metallic elements 00:44:29 7.8 Post-World War II developments 00:44:39 7.8.1 Superalloys 00:45:26 7.8.2 Transcurium metals 00:46:27 7.8.3 Bulk metallic glasses 00:47:47 7.8.4 Shape-memory alloys 00:48:45 7.8.5 Quasicyrstalline alloys 00:50:48 7.8.6 Complex metallic alloys 00:52:07 7.8.7 High entropy alloys 00:52:49 7.8.8 MAX phase alloys 00:54:24 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets) or ductile (can be drawn into wires). A metal may be a chemical element such as iron, or an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is generally regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine gradually becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure. Equally, some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such). The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.Metals comprise 25% of the Earth's crust and are present in many aspects of modern life. The strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools, pipes, and railroad tracks. Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.The history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, silver, iron (as meteoric iron), lead, and brass were likewise in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel; the discovery of sodium—the first light metal�� ...
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Fluorine | Wikipedia audio article
 
51:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorine 00:02:18 1 Characteristics 00:02:28 1.1 Electron configuration 00:02:57 1.2 Reactivity 00:03:31 1.3 Phases 00:06:11 1.4 Isotopes 00:07:25 2 Occurrence 00:08:35 2.1 Universe 00:08:44 2.2 Earth 00:09:44 3 History 00:11:38 3.1 Early discoveries 00:11:47 3.2 Isolation 00:13:18 3.3 Later uses 00:14:57 4 Compounds 00:16:25 4.1 Metals 00:16:56 4.2 Hydrogen 00:18:15 4.3 Other reactive nonmetals 00:19:00 4.4 Noble gases 00:20:45 4.5 Organic compounds 00:21:40 4.5.1 Discrete molecules 00:22:10 4.5.2 Polymers 00:23:18 5 Production 00:24:21 5.1 Industrial 00:24:30 5.2 Chemical 00:25:51 6 Industrial applications 00:26:59 6.1 Inorganic fluorides 00:29:39 6.2 Organic fluorides 00:30:49 6.2.1 Refrigerant gases 00:31:48 6.2.2 Polymers 00:33:03 6.2.3 Surfactants 00:35:18 6.2.4 Agrichemicals 00:36:03 7 Medicinal applications 00:37:15 7.1 Dental care 00:37:25 7.2 Pharmaceuticals 00:38:53 7.3 PET scanning 00:40:45 7.4 Oxygen carriers 00:41:20 8 Biological role 00:42:29 9 Toxicity 00:43:23 9.1 Hydrofluoric acid 00:44:06 9.2 Fluoride ion 00:45:45 10 Environmental concerns 00:47:32 10.1 Atmosphere 00:47:41 10.2 Biopersistence 00:49:20 11 See also 00:50:40 12 Notes 00:50:49 13 Sources 00:50:57 13.1 Citations 00:51:06 13.2 Indexed references 00:51:15 14 External links 00:51:24 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with almost all other elements, except for helium and neon. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
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Sulfur | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sulfur 00:02:07 1 Characteristics 00:02:16 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:52 1.2 Chemical properties 00:05:05 1.3 Allotropes 00:06:16 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:07 1.5 Natural occurrence 00:10:44 2 Compounds 00:11:03 2.1 Sulfur polycations 00:11:47 2.2 Sulfides 00:13:06 2.3 Oxides, oxoacids and oxoanions 00:14:34 2.4 Halides and oxyhalides 00:15:18 2.5 Pnictides 00:15:59 2.6 Metal sulfides 00:16:53 2.7 Organic compounds 00:19:24 3 History 00:19:33 3.1 Antiquity 00:22:01 3.2 Modern times 00:23:54 3.3 Spelling and etymology 00:25:07 4 Production 00:29:08 5 Applications 00:29:17 5.1 Sulfuric acid 00:30:03 5.2 Other important sulfur chemistry 00:31:00 5.3 Fertilizer 00:32:14 5.4 Fine chemicals 00:32:58 5.5 Fungicide and pesticide 00:34:43 5.6 Bactericide in winemaking and food preservation 00:35:57 5.7 Pharmaceuticals 00:36:41 5.7.1 Mechanism of action 00:37:06 5.8 Furniture 00:37:45 6 Biological role 00:37:55 6.1 Protein and organic cofactors 00:40:50 6.2 Metalloproteins and inorganic cofactors 00:41:34 6.3 Sulfur metabolism and the sulfur cycle 00:44:20 7 Precautions 00:46:49 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.
Views: 29 wikipedia tts
Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:07
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc 00:02:57 1 Characteristics 00:03:06 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:46 1.2 Occurrence 00:07:25 1.3 Isotopes 00:09:30 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:09:39 2.1 Reactivity 00:12:10 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:13:03 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:15:05 2.4 Test for zinc 00:15:40 3 History 00:15:48 3.1 Ancient use 00:18:31 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:20:26 3.3 Isolation 00:22:06 3.4 Later work 00:24:01 4 Production 00:24:10 4.1 Mining and processing 00:27:06 4.2 Environmental impact 00:29:03 5 Applications 00:29:28 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:31:43 5.2 Alloys 00:34:48 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:37:43 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:40:04 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:41:56 5.5.1 Common cold 00:43:15 5.6 Topical use 00:43:51 6 Biological role 00:46:28 6.1 Enzymes 00:47:56 6.2 Signalling 00:48:17 6.3 Other proteins 00:50:09 6.4 Dietary recommendations 00:52:47 6.5 Dietary intake 00:54:20 6.6 Deficiency 00:57:23 6.7 Soil remediation 00:57:44 6.8 Agriculture 00:58:40 7 Precautions 00:58:49 7.1 Toxicity 01:01:31 7.2 Poisoning 01:02:45 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:50
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Zinc 00:02:55 1 Characteristics 00:03:05 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:44 1.2 Occurrence 00:07:22 1.3 Isotopes 00:09:26 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:09:36 2.1 Reactivity 00:12:05 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:12:57 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:14:58 2.4 Test for zinc 00:15:33 3 History 00:15:42 3.1 Ancient use 00:18:24 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:20:18 3.3 Isolation 00:21:58 3.4 Later work 00:23:53 4 Production 00:24:02 4.1 Mining and processing 00:26:56 4.2 Environmental impact 00:28:52 5 Applications 00:29:17 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:31:31 5.2 Alloys 00:34:35 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:37:29 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:39:51 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:41:42 5.5.1 Common cold 00:43:01 5.6 Topical use 00:43:36 6 Biological role 00:46:13 6.1 Enzymes 00:47:41 6.2 Signalling 00:48:02 6.3 Other proteins 00:49:53 6.4 Dietary recommendations 00:52:31 6.5 Dietary intake 00:54:03 6.6 Deficiency 00:57:07 6.7 Soil remediation 00:57:27 6.8 Agriculture 00:58:24 7 Precautions 00:58:33 7.1 Toxicity 01:01:14 7.2 Poisoning 01:02:27 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:18:19
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc 00:03:41 1 Characteristics 00:03:50 1.1 Physical properties 00:05:55 1.2 Occurrence 00:09:12 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:50 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:12:00 2.1 Reactivity 00:15:08 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:16:12 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:18:43 2.4 Test for zinc 00:19:25 3 History 00:19:34 3.1 Ancient use 00:22:58 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:25:20 3.3 Isolation 00:27:25 3.4 Later work 00:29:48 4 Production 00:29:57 4.1 Mining and processing 00:33:36 4.2 Environmental impact 00:36:02 5 Applications 00:36:31 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:39:20 5.2 Alloys 00:43:12 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:46:51 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:49:47 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:52:04 5.5.1 Common cold 00:53:42 5.6 Topical use 00:54:24 6 Biological role 00:57:40 6.1 Enzymes 00:59:28 6.2 Signalling 00:59:53 6.3 Other proteins 01:02:12 6.4 Dietary recommendations 01:05:31 6.5 Dietary intake 01:07:26 6.6 Deficiency 01:11:17 6.7 Soil remediation 01:11:40 6.8 Agriculture 01:12:49 7 Precautions 01:12:58 7.1 Toxicity 01:16:23 7.2 Poisoning 01:17:53 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8086688804078577 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper defi ...
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Umetnost Sanjanja
 
10:16:43
Views: 284 Dusko Bjelic