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Alabama in the American Civil War | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Alabama in the American Civil War 00:03:07 1 Secession 00:07:46 2 Alabama joins the war effort 00:09:00 2.1 Transportation difficulty 00:10:48 2.2 Weakening economy 00:12:44 3 Military endeavors 00:16:23 4 Mobile Bay 00:17:26 5 Union occupation of northern Alabama 00:17:55 5.1 Unionists in northern Alabama 00:20:15 5.2 Women 00:22:06 5.3 Slaves 00:22:47 5.4 Confederate partisans 00:23:49 6 Unionists in southern Alabama 00:24:46 7 Battles in Alabama 00:24:55 8 Losses 00:26:13 9 Congressional delegations 00:28:04 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The State of Alabama was central to the Civil War, with the secession convention at Montgomery, birthplace of the Confederacy, inviting other states to form a Southern Republic, during January-March 1861, and develop constitutions to legally run their own affairs. The 1861 Alabama Constitution granted citizenship to current U.S. residents, but prohibited import duties (tariffs) on foreign goods, limited a standing military, and as a final issue, opposed emancipation by any nation, but urged protection of African slaves, with trial by jury, and reserved the power to regulate or prohibit the African slave trade. The secession convention invited all slaveholding states to secede, but only 7 Cotton States of the Lower South formed the Confederacy with Alabama, while the majority of slave states were in the Union and voted to make U.S. slavery permanent by passing the Corwin Amendment, signed by President Buchanan and backed by President Lincoln on March 4, 1861. Even before secession, the governor of Alabama defied the United States government by seizing the two federal forts at the Gulf Coast (forts Morgan and Gaines) and the arsenal at Mount Vernon in January 1861 to distribute weapons to Alabama towns. The peaceful seizure of Alabama forts preceded by three months the bombing and capture of the Union's Fort Sumter (SC) on April 12, 1861. Alabama was politically divided, voting to secede 61-39%, with most opposition by Unionists in northern Alabama, and citizens subsequently joined both Confederate and Union forces. Issues of slavery also were divided, with emancipation denied, but slaves protected, allowed trial by jury same as free whites, and African Slave Trade was discouraged in the 1861 Ordinances.Alabama provided a significant source of troops and leaders, military material, supplies, food, horses and mules. At the southern coast, the Alabama ports remained open (with Union blockades, but guarded by forts, floating mines and obstacle paths) for almost 4 years using blockade runners, until the Battle of Mobile Bay (Aug 1864) and the Battle of Fort Blakeley (April 1865) forced Mobile to surrender the last major Confederate port, in the heart of Dixie. War practices were controversial, with land mines at Fort Blakeley exploding on Union troops even after the battle ended. Almost immediately after the Confederacy surrendered, there were allegations that some Confederate soldiers were shot by the Union colored troops, however these allegations were never proven. Available evidence indicates that some Union soldiers may have fired on Confederates who had surrendered but there was no large scale massacre.Some historians had concluded that Alabama seceded to make the institution of slavery permanent, but none of the Confederate States rejoined the Union when offered the Corwin Amendment to make State "domestic institutions" permanent. Therefore historians have debated the causes of the Civil War, such as avoiding the Union's import tariffs as prohibited in Alabama Ordinance 12, but increased by Lincoln's proposed Morrill Tariff, passed 2 months after Alabama left the Union.
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A Rebel's Recollections by George Cary Eggleston
 
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George Cary Eggleston's Civil War memoir begins with a separate essay on the living conditions and political opinions of Virginia’s citizenry before secession. The body of the work contains vivid descriptions and accounts of the men and women of the South during the time of the Confederacy. Eggleston praises its war heroes, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and Jeb Stuart, but is highly critical of Jefferson Davis and of his government’s inefficiencies, red-tape, and favoritism. The book concludes with the war's end and a tribute to the character of the newly freed slaves. This informative and engaging work, much of which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly, enjoyed great popularity throughout the country. Originally published in 1874, it went through four editions by 1905. 1874 Preface - 00:00 1905 Preface - 01:41 The Old Regime in the Old Dominion - 07:23 Chapter 1. The Mustering - 1:05:21 Chapter 2. The Men Who Made the Army - 1:34:04 Chapter 3. The Temper of the Women - 2:02:09 Chapter 4. Of the Time When Money Was "Easy" - 2:22:18 Chapter 5. The Chevalier of the Lost Cause - 2:54:22 Chapter 6. Lee, Jackson, and Some Lesser Worthies - 3:25:10 Chapter 7. Some Queer People - 3:55:59 Chapter 8. Red Tape - 4:19:48 Chapter 9. The End, and After - 4:56:36
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United States fifty-dollar bill
 
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The United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. The 18th U.S. President (1869–77), Ulysses S. Grant, is featured on the obverse, while the U.S. Capitol is featured on the reverse. All current-issue $50 bills are Federal Reserve Notes. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $50 bill in circulation is 55 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 6% of all notes printed in 2009 were $50 bills. They are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in brown straps. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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History of Alabama | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Alabama 00:07:20 1 Indigenous peoples, early history 00:07:31 1.1 Precontact 00:12:46 2 European colonization 00:24:20 3 Early statehood 00:31:56 4 Secession and Civil War, 1861-1865 00:39:45 4.1 Losses 00:41:27 5 Reconstruction, 1865-1875 00:48:48 6 Democratic politics and disfranchisement 1874-1901 00:53:30 7 Progressive era 1900-1930 00:58:45 7.1 Railroads and industry 01:00:38 8 New South, 1914-1945 01:06:23 9 Civil Rights Movement and redistricting, 1945-1975 01:15:24 10 1975-2000 01:15:36 11 Twenty-first century, 2000-present 01:16:22 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7698391929341336 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Alabama became a state of the United States of America on December 14, 1819. The United States arranged for Indian Removal after 1830, relocating most Southeast tribes to west of the Mississippi River to what was then called Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). These actions affected the Cherokee, Creek (Muscogee), and Chickasaw, among others. After this, European-American arrived in large numbers, bringing or buying African Americans in the domestic slave trade. In antebellum Alabama, wealthy planters created large cotton plantations based in the fertile central Black Belt of the upland region, which depended on the labor of enslaved Africans. Tens of thousands of slaves were transported to and sold in the state by slave traders who purchased them in the Upper South. In the mountains and foothills, poorer whites practiced subsistence farming. By 1860 blacks (nearly all slaves) comprised 45 percent of the state's 964,201 people. The state's wealthy planters considered slavery essential to their economy. As one of the largest slaveholding states, Alabama was among the first six states to secede. It declared its secession in January 1861 and joined the Confederate States of America in February. During the ensuing American Civil War Alabama had moderate levels of warfare. The population suffered economic losses and hardships as a result of the war. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all enslaved people in Confederate states. The Southern capitulation in 1865 ended the Confederate state government. A decade of Reconstruction began, a controversial time that has a range of interpretation. Its biracial government established the first public schools and welfare institutions in the state. After the war, planters worked to get their vast cotton plantations back into production. African Americans chose to exert some independence as free tenant farmers and sharecroppers, rather than working in labor gangs. Wherever possible, African-American women left the fields. Small farms, which produced general crops before the war, turned to cotton as a cash crop. The market for cotton was overloaded, and prices dropped 50%.For a half century after the Civil War, Alabama was a poor, heavily rural state, with an economy based on cotton; most farmers were tenant, sharecroppers or laborers who did not own land. Reconstruction ended when conservative white Democrats, calling themselves known as "Redeemers" regained control of the state legislature by both legal and extralegal means (including violence and harassment). They established political and social dominance over African Americans. In 1901, Southern Democrats passed a state Constitution that effectively disfranchised most African Americans (who in 1900 comprised more than 45 percent of the state's population), as well as tens of thousands of poor whites. By 1941, a total 600,000 poor whites and 520,000 African Americans had been disfranchised. In addition, despite massive population changes in the state that accompanied urbanization and industrialization, the rural-dominated legislature refused to redistrict from 1901 to the 1960s, leading to massive malapportionment in Congressional and s ...
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