Search results “Quantum public key cryptosystems”

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With recent high-profile security decryption cases, encryption is more important than ever. Much of your browser usage and your smartphone data is encrypted. But what does that process actually entail? And when computers get smarter and faster due to advances in quantum physics, how will encryption keep up?
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Views: 265465
Physics Girl

How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption? I'll explain all of these in plain English!
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Simply Explained - Savjee

Dr. Tomoyuki Yamakami was invited to the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon in Lisbon, Portugal to deliver a public talk regarding quantum complexity theory and cryptography on March 15, 2013.
Speaker: Tomoyuki Yamakami
Language: English
Title: Quantum Hardcores and Quantum Public-Key Cryptosystems

Views: 32
Tomoyuki Yamakami

MIT 6.042J Mathematics for Computer Science, Spring 2015
View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-042JS15
Instructor: Albert R. Meyer
License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms
More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu

Views: 16729
MIT OpenCourseWare

IQC Masters student Stacey Jeffery lectures on the concepts and applications of public key schemes.

Views: 686
Institute for Quantum Computing

How keys are distributed is vital to any encryption system. Find out how to do it with the Diffie–Hellman key exchange and using public-key cryptography. Find out more: https://goo.gl/qI6jxZ
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Views: 39704
Android Authority

How do you secure messages over the internet? How do quantum computers break it? How do you fix it? Why don't you watch the video to find out? Why does this description have so many questions? Why are you still reading? What is the meaning of life?
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CLARIFICATIONS:
You don't actually need a quantum computer to do quantum-safe encryption. As briefly mentioned at 7:04 , there are encryption schemes that can be run on regular computers that can't be broken by quantum computers.
CORRECTIONS:
[2:18] Technically, you can use any key to encrypt or decrypt whatever you want. But there's a specific way to use them that's useful, which is what's shown in the video.
[5:36] In RSA, depending on exactly what you mean by "private key", neither key is actually derivable from the other. When they are created, they are generated together from a common base (not just the public key from the private key). But typically, the file that stores the "private key" actually contains a bit more information than just the private key. For example, in PKCS #1 RSA private key format ( https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447#appendix-A.1.2 ), the file technically contains the entire public key too. So in short, you technically can't get the public key from the private key or vice versa, but the file that contains the private key can hold more than just the private key alone, making it possible to retrieve the public key from it.
Video links:
Encryption and HUGE numbers - Numberphile
https://youtu.be/M7kEpw1tn50
The No Cloning Theorem - minutephysics
https://youtu.be/owPC60Ue0BE
Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance - Veritasium
https://youtu.be/ZuvK-od647c
Sources:
Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists
http://books.google.ca/books/about/Quantum_Computing_for_Computer_Scientist.html?id=eTT0FsHA5DAC
Random person talking about Quantum MITM attacks
http://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/2719/is-quantum-key-distribution-safe-against-mitm-attacks-too
The Ekert Protocol (i.e. E91)
http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~nilic/Nina's-article.pdf
Annealing vs. Universal Quantum Computers
https://medium.com/quantum-bits/what-s-the-difference-between-quantum-annealing-and-universal-gate-quantum-computers-c5e5099175a1
Images, Documents, and Screenshots:
Post-Quantum Cryptography initiatives
http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/post-quantum-crypto/cfp-announce-dec2016.html
http://pqcrypto.eu.org/docs/initial-recommendations.pdf
Internet map (Carna Botnet)
http://census2012.sourceforge.net/
Quantum network maps
https://www.slideshare.net/ADVAOpticalNetworking/how-to-quantumsecure-optical-networks
http://www.secoqc.net/html/press/pressmedia.html
IBM Quantum
http://research.ibm.com/ibm-q/
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Views: 525637
Frame of Essence

Public key encryption (PKE) allows parties that had never met in advance to communicate over an unsafe channel. The notion was conceived in the 1970s, followed by the discovery that one could provide formal definitions of security for this and other cryptographic problems, and that such definitions were achievable by assuming the hardness of some computational problem (e.g., factoring large numbers). For PKE, the most basic security definition -- semantic security -- guarantees privacy, namely that it is infeasible to learn anything about the plaintext from its encryption. However, as cryptographic applications grew more sophisticated, this level of security is often not sufficient, since it does not protect against active attacks arising in networked environments. In this talk I will review some of my work aimed at achieving stronger security notions for public key encryption, including protections against adaptive corruptions, man-in-the-middle attacks (non-malleability), chosen ciphertext security, and, if time allows, tampering attacks. The emphasis of this line of work is on achieving the stronger notion from as general an assumption as possible (e.g., directly from semantically secure PKE), as well as achieving a black box construction, namely using the underlying scheme as a subroutine, without assuming it has any special structure or algebraic properties. This allows for more efficient cryptosystems that can be instantiated with a larger set of assumptions. Based on several joint works with different coauthors. The main part of the talk will be based on joint works with Seung Geol Choi, Dana Dachman-Soled, and Hoeteck Wee.

Views: 76
Microsoft Research

RSA Public Key Encryption Algorithm (cryptography). How & why it works. Introduces Euler's Theorem, Euler's Phi function, prime factorization, modular exponentiation & time complexity.
Link to factoring graph: http://www.khanacademy.org/labs/explorations/time-complexity

Views: 532733
Art of the Problem

This animation by the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore illustrates the process of quantum key distribution using entangled photons. The goal is for two people in different places to end up with identical keys by measuring these photons. We want these people - usually given the names Alice and Bob - to have a random sequence of 1s and 0s that they can use to scramble (and then unscramble) a message. The presence of entanglement between the photons means that any snooping will be revealed. Note: this animation has no sound.
See also our video series on cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CHL5j4XhurVKJz16Qg6qj0toMHyLh7q

Views: 24062
Centre for Quantum Technologies

Recorded: 02/23/2005
CERIAS Security Seminar at Purdue University
Perturbation of Multivariable Public-key Cryptosystems
Jintai Ding, University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication
systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems
like RSA, which are based on
Jintai Ding is currently an associate professor in Department of
Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cincinnati. He received his Ph.D.
in Mathematics from Yale in 1995. He received the Zhong Jia Qing prize from
the Chinese Mathematical Society in 1990 and the Sloan Dissertation
Fellowship in 1994-1995. Before he moved to Cincinnati in 1998, he worked
as a lecturer at the Research Institute of Mathematical Sciences of Kyoto
University in Japan for three years. His early works are in quantum groups
and in the last few years, his main interest is in the area of the
multivariable public key cryptosystems. (Visit: www.cerias.purude.edu)

Views: 162
ceriaspurdue

What is POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. This is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently large quantum computer. The problem with the currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers are too small to attack any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the PQCrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on Quantum Safe Cryptography hosted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Institute for Quantum Computing.
In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. While the quantum Grover's algorithm does speed up attacks against symmetric ciphers, doubling the key size can effectively block these attacks. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography.

Views: 179
The Audiopedia

What if all "secured" websites could no longer be trusted to keep your data safe? The impact on eCommerce, banking, and other websites we use every day would be devastating. Learn about Quantum Computing, and why this is a very real risk not too far away. Download the guide to learn more https://web.securityinnovation.com/what-is-post-quantum-cryptography.

Views: 5107
Security Innovation

Clip 5/6
Speakers: Ilja Gerhardt, Vadim Makarov
Quantum cryptography, as being based on the laws of physics, was claimed to be much more secure than all classical cryptography schemes. (Un)fortunately physical hardware is not beyond of an evil control: We present a successful attack of an existing quantum key distribution system exploiting a photon detector vulnerability which is probably present in all existing devices. Without Alice and Bob losing their faith in their secure communication, we recorded 100% of the supposedly secret key.
The actual eavesdropping hardware we have built will be shown during the conference.
A brief intro into quantum cryptography will be given at the beginning of the talk. Then, Vadim Makarov will explain the above attack. At the end of the talk, Ilja Gerhardt will (hopefully) present another application of the discovered detector vulnerability, which shall remain a surprise :)
For more information go to: https://har2009.org/program/events/168.en.html

Views: 945
Christiaan008

Clip 1/5
Speaker: Jintai Ding · University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems like RSA, which are based on
For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)

Views: 119
Christiaan008

Clip 5/5
Speaker: Jintai Ding · University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems like RSA, which are based on
For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)

Views: 66
Christiaan008

Post-Quantum Key Exchange for the TLS Protocol from the Ring Learning with Errors Problem
Douglas Stebila
Presented at the
2015 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy
May 18--20, 2015
San Jose, CA
http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/
ABSTRACT
Lattice-based cryptographic primitives are believed to offer resilience against attacks by quantum computers. We demonstrate the practicality of post-quantum key exchange by constructing cipher suites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that provide key exchange based on the ring learning with errors (R-LWE) problem, we accompany these cipher suites with a rigorous proof of security. Our approach ties lattice-based key exchange together with traditional authentication using RSA or elliptic curve digital signatures: the post-quantum key exchange provides forward secrecy against future quantum attackers, while authentication can be provided using RSA keys that are issued by today's commercial certificate authorities, smoothing the path to adoption. Our cryptographically secure implementation, aimed at the 128-bit security level, reveals that the performance price when switching from non-quantum-safe key exchange is not too high. With our R-LWE cipher suites integrated into the Open SSL library and using the Apache web server on a 2-core desktop computer, we could serve 506 RLWE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 HTTPS connections per second for a 10 KiB payload. Compared to elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman, this means an 8 KiB increased handshake size and a reduction in throughput of only 21%. This demonstrates that provably secure post-quantum key-exchange can already be considered practical.

Views: 1161
IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy

Clip 4/5
Speaker: Jintai Ding · University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems like RSA, which are based on
For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)

Views: 62
Christiaan008

Jintai Ding of the University of Cincinnati and the Chinese Academy of Sciences presented a talk titled: ZHFE, a new multivariate public key encryption scheme at the 2014 PQCrypto conference in October, 2014.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new multivariate public key encryption scheme named ZHFE. The public key is constructed using as core map two high rank HFE polynomials. The inversion of the public key is performed using a low degree polynomial of Hamming weight three. This low degree polynomial is obtained from the two high rank HFE polynomials, by means of a special reduction method that uses HFE polynomials. We show that ZHFE is relatively efficient and the it is secure against the main attacks that have threatened the security of HFE. We also propose parameters for a practical implementation of ZHFE.
PQCrypto
2014 Book: http://www.springer.com/computer/security+and+cryptology/book/978-3-319-11658-7
Workshop: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/
Find out more about IQC!
Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu...
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC
Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC

Views: 1370
Institute for Quantum Computing

Title: Cryptanalysis of the McEliece Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Polar Codes
Authors: Magali Bardet, Julia Chaulet, Vlad Dragoi, Ayoub Otmani, and Jean-Pierre Tillich
7th International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography PQCrypto 2016
https://pqcrypto2016.jp/program/
Proceedings
http://www.springer.com/jp/book/9783319293592

Views: 339
PQCrypto 2016

A talk given at the University of Waterloo on July 12th, 2016. The intended audience was mathematics students without necessarily any prior background in cryptography or elliptic curves.
Apologies for the poor audio quality. Use subtitles if you can't hear.

Views: 1929
David Urbanik

Clip 2/5
Speaker: Jintai Ding · University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems like RSA, which are based on
For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)

Views: 30
Christiaan008

Quantum Cryptography explained simply. Regular encryption is breakable, but not quantum cryptography. Today we'll look at the simplest case of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution. It uses the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle to prevent eavesdroppers from cracking the code.
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https://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/quantum-cryptology.htm
The Code Book - Simon Singh
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Views: 17066
Up and Atom

Clip 3/5
Speaker: Jintai Ding · University of Cincinnati
Public key cryptography is an indispensable part of most modern communication systems. However, quantum computers can break cryptosystems like RSA, which are based on
For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)

Views: 32
Christiaan008

A short video attempting to explain the Bennett & Brassard quantum cryptography protocol.
I've omitted any mention of the particular details of quantum physics that would be involved in actual real-world implementations, such as particle polarization axes, spin, and so forth, instead replacing them with abstract "processes" and freakish mysterious "machines". The physical details (interesting though they are) are not needed to understand the basics of the protocol, and I'm no physicist, so I'd probably mess them up if I tried (assuming I haven't already!).
Making these images has increased my affection for Microsoft PowerPoint, and putting them all into a video has hugely exacerbated my hatred for Windows Movie Maker.
NOTE:
An important missing piece of information: When Alice sends qubits to Bob, she chooses between process A and process B randomly for each qubit.
NOTE 2:
The following video explains BB84 as well, and gives more detail regarding the physics details:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SMcf1MdOaQ
NOTE 3:
Here is another very interesting video about quantum cryptography. Any given real-world implementation, despite using the BB84 protocol, is bound to expose weaknesses that can be exploited. For example:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0WnUlF2eAo

Views: 43754
Creature Mann

Clip 4/6
Speakers: Ilja Gerhardt, Vadim Makarov
Quantum cryptography, as being based on the laws of physics, was claimed to be much more secure than all classical cryptography schemes. (Un)fortunately physical hardware is not beyond of an evil control: We present a successful attack of an existing quantum key distribution system exploiting a photon detector vulnerability which is probably present in all existing devices. Without Alice and Bob losing their faith in their secure communication, we recorded 100% of the supposedly secret key.
The actual eavesdropping hardware we have built will be shown during the conference.
A brief intro into quantum cryptography will be given at the beginning of the talk. Then, Vadim Makarov will explain the above attack. At the end of the talk, Ilja Gerhardt will (hopefully) present another application of the discovered detector vulnerability, which shall remain a surprise :)
For more information go to: https://har2009.org/program/events/168.en.html

Views: 911
Christiaan008

Spies used to meet in the park to exchange code words, now things have moved on - Robert Miles explains the principle of Public/Private Key Cryptography
note1: Yes, it should have been 'Obi Wan' not 'Obi One' :)
note2: The string of 'garbage' text in the two examples should have been different to illustrate more clearly that there are two different systems in use.
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Views: 409881
Computerphile

Nicolas Sendrier of the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation presented an invited talk on code-based public-key cryptography at the 2014 PQCrypto summer school in October, 2014.
PQCrypto Summer School: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/summer-school/
Find out more about IQC!
Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu...
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC
Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC

Views: 1055
Institute for Quantum Computing

Thanks to all of you who support me on Patreon. You da real mvps! $1 per month helps!! :) https://www.patreon.com/patrickjmt !! Part 1: https://youtu.be/PkpFBK3wGJc
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In this video I show mathematically for RSA encryption works by going through an example of sending an encrypted message!
If you are interested in seeing how Euclid's algorithm would work, check out this video by Emily Jane: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fz1vxq5ts5I
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Please like and share using hashtag #sciencegoals

Views: 38048
patrickJMT

https://media.ccc.de/v/34c3-9075-latticehacks
Fun with lattices in cryptography and cryptanalysis
Lattices are an extremely useful mathematical tool for cryptography.
This talk will explain the basics of lattices in cryptography and cryptanalysis.
It’s an exciting time for public-key cryptography. With the threat of practical quantum computers looming in the next few decades, it’s high time to replace the systems that can be broken by a quantum computer with ones that remain secure even if the attacker has a quantum computer. However, this is easier said than done – there is no consensus what replacements should be chosen and how secure the systems are. NIST has just started a 5-7 year competition with the target to recommend a portfolio of post-quantum encryption and signature schemes. Considerations will be speed, bandwidth, and of course security.
Several of the submissions are based on lattices. At our current level of understanding, lattice-based cryptography offers relatively small public keys for both encryption and signatures, while having good performance and reasonably sized ciphertexts and signatures. While these features are nice and make us want to know more about lattices, that world can be a scary place full of discussions of Minkowski bounds, Gaussian distributions, and orthogonalized bases. We will show how these schemes work in accessible terms.
Lattices have been used in cryptography for more than thirty years, but for most of that only as a tool to attack systems, starting with knapsack systems in the early 80’s. Lattices can also be used to break conventional public-key cryptosystems such as RSA or Diffie-Hellman when they are incorrectly implemented. This talk will explain these fun attacks in concrete terms, with code you can run at home.
Algorithms will be presented as Python/Sage code snippets and will already be online before the talk at https://latticehacks.cr.yp.to.
This is a joint presentation by Daniel J. Bernstein, Nadia Heninger, and Tanja Lange, surveying work by many people.
djb Tanja Lange Nadia Heninger
https://fahrplan.events.ccc.de/congress/2017/Fahrplan/events/9075.html

Views: 2605
media.ccc.de

Tutorial Talk 4 by Johannes A. Buchmann at 5th International Conference on Quantum Cryptography (QCrypt 2015) in Hitotsubashi Hall, Tokyo, October 2nd, 2015.
Download the slides at: http://2015.qcrypt.net/scientific-program/

Views: 3762
QCrypt 2015

http://spirent.com Presentation on how to use Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to set up a secrete key between two parties. Also a quick overview of the protocol BB84. Sometimes known as Quantum cryptography.

Views: 7480
alantalkstech

#United States' National Institute of Standards and #Technology
"With the public's participation," #NIST's Cryptographic Technology Group says in a blog post (https://goo.gl/DZRVhS), "NIST intends to spend the next few years gathering, testing and ultimately recommending new algorithms that would be less susceptible to a quantum computer's attack."
The development of "new public-key cryptography standards will specify one or more additional unclassified, publicly disclosed digital signature, public-key encryption, and key establishment algorithms that are capable of protecting sensitive government information well into the foreseeable future, including after the advent of quantum computers," the agency says (https://goo.gl/8rnFmH).
--------------------------------------
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Views: 268
ICT Blog's

Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce...
Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 450070
itfreetraining

How do we exchange a secret key in the clear? Spoiler: We don't - Dr Mike Pound shows us exactly what happens.
Mathematics bit: https://youtu.be/Yjrfm_oRO0w
Computing Limit: https://youtu.be/jv2H9fp9dT8
https://www.facebook.com/computerphile
https://twitter.com/computer_phile
This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.
Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: https://bit.ly/nottscomputer
Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at http://www.bradyharan.com

Views: 181764
Computerphile

This video shows an entertaining way to introduce Computer Science to school students.
For the next part, see http://nz.youtube.com/watch?v=iDVH3oCTc2c
For the first part in the series, see http://nz.youtube.com/watch?v=voqghyZbZxo
The full show is available in one clip at http://nz.youtube.com/watch?v=VpDDPWVn5-Q
For more information, see http://csunplugged.org

Views: 32468
UC Computer Science Education

What is KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM? What does KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM mean? KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM meaning - KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM definition - KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Knapsack Cryptosystems are cryptosystems which security is based on the hardness of solving the knapsack problem. While such systems have been existing for quite a long time, they remain quite unpopular because a lot of such systems have been broken. However that type of cryptosystem is a good candidate for post-quantum cryptography
The most famous knapsack cryptosystem is the Merkle-Hellman Public Key Cryptosystem, one of the first public key cryptosystem, published the same year as the RSA cryptosystem. However this system has been broken by several attacks : one from Shamir, one by Adleman, and the low density attack.
However, there exist modern knapsack cryptosystems that are considered secure so far: among them is Nasako-Murakami 2006.
What is interesting with those systems is that the Knapsack problem, in the settings where no attack were found, is believed to be difficult to solve even by a quantum computer. This is not the case for systems as RSA relying on the problem of factoring big integers, a problem that is solved in linear time by Shor's quantum algorithm.

Views: 495
The Audiopedia

Invited talk by Dustin Moody at Asiacrypt 2017.

Views: 323
TheIACR

I introduce the basic principles of quantum cryptography, and discuss today's status of its technology, with examples of optical schemes and components. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is required :).
This first lecture is about the basics of quantum cryptography. Lectures 2 and 3 cover quantum hacking:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2r7B8Zpxmcw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sc_cJiLFQZ0
Presentation slides of the entire lecture course can be downloaded at:
Power Point (95 MiB, with videos and animations) - http://www.vad1.com/lab/presentations/Makarov-20140801-IQC-short-course.pptx
PDF (14.8 MiB, static images only) - http://www.vad1.com/lab/presentations/Makarov-20140801-IQC-short-course.pdf
Vadim Makarov is a research assistant professor at the Institute for Quantum Computing, heading the Quantum hacking lab - http://www.vad1.com/lab/
This course was part of a lecture series hosted by CryptoWorks21 in August 2014 in Waterloo, Canada.
Find out more about IQC!
Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC
Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC

Views: 15342
Institute for Quantum Computing

A 1976, two Stanford researchers devised an encryption method that revolutionized cryptography by making it easier to send encrypted information without having to agree on a key beforehand. With the help of a short animation, cryptographer Tal Rabin explains how these "public" keys work.
Watch the Full Program Here: https://youtu.be/nVVF8dgKC38
Original Program Date: June 4, 2011
The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows a broad general audience to engage with scientific discoveries. Our mission is to cultivate a general public informed by science, inspired by its wonder, convinced of its value, and prepared to engage with its implications for the future.
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF.
Visit our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/
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Views: 2992
World Science Festival

Mia Epner, who works on security for a US national intelligence agency, explains how cryptography allows for the secure transfer of data online. This educational video explains 256 bit encryption, public and private keys, SSL & TLS and HTTPS.
Learn more at http://code.org/
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Help us caption & translate this video!
https://amara.org/v/HGaS/

Views: 201164
Code.org

Keywords/phrases: Quantum cryptography, quantum cryptoanalysis, quantum computing. Bitcoin uses SHA-256. In cryptography there is a 20-30 year lifecycle for an algorithm before it gets exceeded by new technologies and developments in mathematics. Both the signing and hashing algorithms can be upgraded in Bitcoin if there is a need to do that. Quantum cryptography represents a threat only if unevenly distributed in commercial sectors. If it is available to only one actor, and not all actors, they are unlikely to use it against Bitcoin; instead they're going to keep it secret and use it when they're threatened by ex. cryptographically secure nuclear weapons. Intelligence agencies who have that kind of significant computing advantage don't use it until there is a dire emergency, because once you use it everyone will know you have it. After that all the algorithms get changed, so you better make it good. If it is widely available, all the miners update to quantum computers and we're going to be looking at several orders of magnitude in improvement, because running one is neither free nor easy. We don't know what the economics will be yet, but we will solve problems when it's necessary.
Corporations and governments are not going to be happy with Bitcoin. Kings were not happy and yet the revolution happened anyway. Bitcoin is a global and technological revolution. They have adapted to new technologies for hundreds of years. The fact that they won't be happy doesn't concern me, because Bitcoin is a system that doesn't require their permission, approval, or cooperation. They can pretend it's going away but it isn't. We can talk all day about whether the government should or shouldn't regulate Bitcoin, but the real question is whether they can. They can regulate at the edge, the behaviour of users, but they can't regulate Bitcoin itself. Bitcoin is exciting because it introduces a new choice; it's not saying you can't do the old way (hierarchical central banking, border-restricted jurisdictions for currencies ), it's saying we can also do this.

Views: 19004
aantonop

Of all the interfaces between physics and computer science that have grown up in the last few decades, quantum computing is one of the most exciting. Much of this excitement was driven by Peter Shor’s 1994 discovery that quantum computers can efficiently factor large integers, and thus break the RSA public-key cryptosystem. After describing how Shor’s algorithm works, I will describe why many of us were hopeful that a similar algorithm could work for Graph Isomorphism, another problem not known to be efficiently solvable by classical computers.
Cristopher Moore received his Ph.D. in Physics from Cornell. Since 2012, Moore has been a resident professor at the Santa Fe Institute ; he has also held visiting positions at École Polytechnique, École Normale Superieure du Lyon, the University of Michigan, and Northeastern University. He is working at the boundaries between physics and computer science, ranging from quantum computing, to phase transitions in NP-complete problems.

Views: 37
Département de Physique de l'ENS

IQC member Fang Song presented a talk titled: A Note on Quantum Security for Post-Quantum Cryptography at the 2014 PQCrypto conference in October, 2014.
Abstract: Shor's quantum factoring algorithm and a few other efficient quantum algorithms break many classical crypto-systems. In response, people proposed post-quantum cryptography based on computational problems that are believed hard even for quantum computers. However, security of these schemes against quantum attacks is elusive. This is because existing security analysis (almost) only deals with classical attackers and arguing security in the presence of quantum adversaries is challenging due to unique quantum features such as no-cloning.
This work proposes a general framework to study which classical security proofs can be restored in the quantum setting. Basically, we split a security proof into (a sequence of) classical security reductions, and investigate what security reductions are "quantum-friendly". We characterize sufficient conditions such that a classical reductions can be "lifted" to the quantum setting.
We then apply our lifting theorems to post-quantum signature schemes. We are able to show that the classical generic construction of hash-tree based signatures from one-way functions that are resistant to efficient quantum inversion algorithms, there exists a quantum-secure signature scheme. We note that the scheme in [10] is a promising (post-quantum) candidate to be implemented in practice and our result further justifies it. Actually, to obtain these results, we formalize a simple criteria, which is motivated by many classical proofs in the literature and is straight-forward to check. This makes our lifting theorem easier to apply, and it should be useful elsewhere to prove quantum security of proposed post-quantum cryptographic schemes. Finally we demonstrate the generality of our framework by showing that several existing works (Full-Domain hash in the quantum random-oracle model [47] and the simple hybrid arguments framework in [23]) can be reformulated under our unified framework.
PQCrypto
2014 Book: http://www.springer.com/computer/security+and+cryptology/book/978-3-319-11658-7
Workshop: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/
Find out more about IQC!
Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu...
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC
Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC

Views: 860
Institute for Quantum Computing

Post Quantum Cryptography - Cryptographic Challenge
Crypto Challenge Homepage
http://automatski.com/crypto

Views: 138
Automatski Solutions

What is QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION? What does QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION mean? QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION meaning - QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION definition - QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is often incorrectly called quantum cryptography, as it is the best-known example of a quantum cryptographic task.
An important and unique property of quantum key distribution is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain knowledge of the key. This results from a fundamental aspect of quantum mechanics: the process of measuring a quantum system in general disturbs the system. A third party trying to eavesdrop on the key must in some way measure it, thus introducing detectable anomalies. By using quantum superpositions or quantum entanglement and transmitting information in quantum states, a communication system can be implemented that detects eavesdropping. If the level of eavesdropping is below a certain threshold, a key can be produced that is guaranteed to be secure (i.e. the eavesdropper has no information about it), otherwise no secure key is possible and communication is aborted.
The security of encryption that uses quantum key distribution relies on the foundations of quantum mechanics, in contrast to traditional public key cryptography, which relies on the computational difficulty of certain mathematical functions, and cannot provide any mathematical proof as to the actual complexity of reversing the one-way functions used. QKD has provable security based on information theory, and forward secrecy.
Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute a key, not to transmit any message data. This key can then be used with any chosen encryption algorithm to encrypt (and decrypt) a message, which can then be transmitted over a standard communication channel. The algorithm most commonly associated with QKD is the one-time pad, as it is provably secure when used with a secret, random key. In real-world situations, it is often also used with encryption using symmetric key algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm.

Views: 139
The Audiopedia

Clip 5/6
Speakers: Qin Liu ,Sebastien Sauge
This presentation will show the first experimental implementation of an eavesdropper for quantum cryptosystem. Although quantum cryptography has been proven unconditionally secure, by exploiting physical imperfections (detector vulnerability) we have successfully built an intercept-resend attack and demonstrated eavesdropping under realistic conditions on an installed quantum key distribution line. The actual eavesdropping hardware we have built will be shown during the conference.
For more information go to: http://events.ccc.de/congress/2009/Fahrplan/events/3576.en.html

Views: 175
Christiaan008

Post-Quantum is a UK-based company specialising in secure communications, authentication, encryption and blockchain. The company offers a modular cyber security toolkit to the financial services, government, and other critical sectors.

Views: 948
Post-Quantum

The Future of Cybersecurity: Zeroing In On Un-Hackable Data With Quantum Key Distribution
Speaker: Alexander Ling, Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore
* Filmed at EmTech Asia on 14 February 2017 *
Improvements in quantum computing potentially place existing public-key cryptosystems under threat. On the other hand, the ability to generate and distribute quantum signals in the form of individual light particles has matured over the last decade. This has been utilized for the automatic distribution of encryption keys, and is known as Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). Alex will discuss the benefits and challenges when implementing QKD over short and long distances.

Views: 539
Centre for Quantum Technologies

The history behind public key cryptography & the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm.
We also have a video on RSA here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8

Views: 606875
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