Video #12 Six Categories of Tourism Flows
SLIDE #1: Welcome to video #12 in my series of presentations that will attempt to “demystify tourism”. I’m Dr. Stan McGahey, the creator and narrator of the videos. Their content is based on my experiences worldwide as a professor, consultant, writer, manager, and tourist in more than 80 countries on 6 continents.
SLIDE #2: Tourism, is people on the go, in their own country, or in another. So how do these two simple types of trips, turn into six types of tourism flows? The answer is, it depends on which country is counting the tourists, and for what purposes. This becomes evident in the definitions that follow. First. why do we need to categorize tourists in these six ways? The answer is, because each country needs statistics on the tourism activities that take place within its borders, and the type and amount of tourism activity of its residents, in order to effectively plan and manage, its tourism industry. Two examples, of the use of these statistics, are the need to determine how many hotel rooms a destination needs, and is the country experiencing a tourism surplus, or deficit. More on that, in a future video.
SLIDE #3: Domestic tourism, is residents of a country traveling within that same country. Example: A family in Tanzania, taking the ferry from Zanzibar, to visit Dar es Salaam, or a Kurdish family, enjoying a spring festival picnic, in the mountains of northern Iraq. The vast majority, of the trips taken throughout the world, are domestic.
SLIDE #4: Tourists who travel to a country that is not their country of residence, are counted as inbound tourists, by the country of arrival. Example: Korean newlyweds who visit Bali on their honeymoon, are counted as inbound tourists, by Indonesia.
SLIDE #5: Tourists, who travel from a country, where they are residents, to another country, are counted as outbound tourists, by the country of departure. Example: Two Danish students, headed for Italy, Greece, and anywhere else with warm weather and sunshine, are counted as outbound tourists, by Denmark.
SLIDE #6: National tourism, consists of both domestic tourism and outbound tourism. It counts the total tourism activities of the residents of a specific country, to include both their travel within the country, and their travel abroad. Example: Three Americans college students from Chicago, visiting Seattle, are domestic tourists, and when they travel around Europe for the summer, they are outbound tourists. Both of their trips are counted by the United States, as part of its national tourism totals.
SLIDE #7: Internal tourism, is the total of all tourism activities that take place within a country. It consists of two parts, domestic tourism and inbound tourism. Example: American college students travel to Florida for spring break, and Japanese students visit Washington, DC, for the Cherry Blossom Festival. Both, are counted as part of internal tourism, for the United States.
SLIDE #8: International tourism is the total of all travel abroad, so a country counts non-resident travelers who arrive, which is inbound tourism, and residents who depart, which is outbound tourism. Example: the country is India. A German man visits various temples and tiger preserves in India, and an Indian man bicycles around the world for peace. Both count, as part of India’s international tourism total.
SLIDE #9: Getting the raw data, is taking a headcount, as people cross borders by various forms of transportation, and when they register at hotels, apply for passports and visas, buy admission tickets, convert money, and respond to research surveys. Some of the data, is collected in a straightforward way, such as by immigration officials at borders between two countries, while other data, is assimilated from various sources, or obtained by using research methods, such as sampling.
SLIDE #10: Statistics on tourism flows, are collected by destinations at various levels. Tourism researchers at DMOs add tourist profiles and other useful information into the mix. Most destinations publish monthly, quarterly, and annual statistical reports. These reports show totals for those specific periods, as well as comparisons, with previous periods, using many combinations of arrival and departure figures. The goal is to understand the status of their tourism industry, including recent trends, feedback on marketing strategies, results of any political changes, and impacts of other external factors. Now, I invite you to watch Video #13: Three Impacts of Tourism. Thank you!